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Cybersecurity Compliance: What, Why, How?

Business is evolving quickly, becoming more data-driven and technologically sophisticated. Organizations must use information technology, whether it be hardware or software, to increase operational effectiveness, collect more data for analytics, and empower their employees. A system that protects the infrastructure security of software and hardware against possible attacks and current weaknesses is known as cybersecurity.

Compliance has become more difficult for firms due to new industry standards and laws around data and cybersecurity. To be successful, any firm must adhere to cybersecurity regulations. Compliance is more than simply checking off boxes for legal requirements; it's also a formal method of defending your company against online threats like distributed denial of service (DDoS), phishing, malware, ransomware, and more.

Any business, regardless of size, is susceptible to cyber attacks and data breaches. Therefore, maintaining cybersecurity and becoming a security-compliant organization is crucial to preventing both the harm caused by cyber threats and the repercussions of breaking the law. Compliance stands for the systems' security, dependability, integrity, and confidentiality.

An extensive guide describing

  • cybersecurity compliance,
  • the importance of cybersecurity compliance,
  • types of data subject to cybersecurity compliance,
  • the importance of a NGFW (Next Generation Fire Wall) for Cybersecurity Compliance,
  • the major cybersecurity compliance requirements,
  • how you should start a Cybersecurity Compliance Program,
  • what a cyber security compliance analyst does,
  • the skills that a compliance analyst need

and more are provided below.

What is Cybersecurity Compliance?

Cybersecurity compliance is the process of evaluating risks in accordance with security norms and laws. Cybersecurity compliance is able to guarantee data confidentiality and the manner in which it is carried out. Cybersecurity compliance is utilized to satisfy international security and data management standards. Depending on the security management system that conforms with requirements, safeguard measures and protocols are implemented. This is done to guarantee the probability of prospective breaches being mitigated and to establish processes prior to a data breach. In addition, it gives the parties impacted by a data breach a plan of action.

Businesses must object to certain security standards and regulatory cybersecurity regulations. All of these, while using different methodologies, have the goal of protecting sensitive data by creating rules. When regulating stored data and information kinds, regulatory obligations are applied both domestically and globally. Within the business's own industry, used standards are different and can overlap. Significant cybersecurity compliance standards include ISO/IEC 27001, HIPAA, FISMA, CIPA, PCI-DDS, and GDPR.

Why is Cybersecurity Compliance Important?

In today's data-driven society, protecting information privacy and security has become a major worry as data breaches pop up often. Governments and business organizations frequently enact new rules and regulations while modifying current ones to preserve client data privacy.

Companies and IT organizations are required to adhere to data privacy and security requirements that are relevant to their particular sector and region. Organizations must recognize that compliance has a big positive impact on the business, despite the fact that keeping up with the most recent compliance standards and norms is costly and resource-intensive.

Compliance regulations are crucial in creating a strong cybersecurity environment. Ensuring compliance, however, does not equate to total cybersecurity. Cybercriminals are continuously looking for ways to get around compliance requirements in order to violate legal security requirements. The organization's cybersecurity may suffer as a result of maintaining several requirements to be compliant without addressing cybersecurity protection.

The development and management of sophisticated cyber security services that go well beyond certain sets of compliance criteria is something that enterprises must do in order to stay ahead of the cyber curve.

What are the Benefits of Cybersecurity Compliance?

Even though implementing cybersecurity compliance is expensive and requires a variety of resources for organizations, it offers great benefits. In addition to assuring compliance and preventing expensive data breaches, the main advantages of IT security compliance for your company are explained below:

  • Abstain from Fees and Penalties: For businesses that find themselves out of compliance, disregarding the most recent laws and regulations that apply to their industry can prove expensive. To avoid incurring fines and penalties, firms must be up to date on the newest compliance trends and laws. The following are some of the most frequent compliances and the corresponding infraction penalties:
    • The maximum yearly fine under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is US$1.5 million, with fines ranging from US$100 to US$50,000 for each infringement.
    • Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard General Data Protection Act (GDPR) 4% of a company's global sales or 20 million euros, whichever is higher (PCI-DSS) - Every month, from USD 5,000 and USD 100,000
    • USD 2,500 to USD 7,500 for every breach of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)

You can avoid these harsh fines and penalties by maintaining compliance.

  • Build Brand Reputation and Customer Trust: The true threat posed by a data breach frequently goes beyond company interruption and financial loss and includes the long-term harm it may do to a brand's reputation and consumer trust. A strong reaction is essential to safeguard consumer loyalty and brand reputation during the period of uncertainty and bewilderment brought on by a data breach. A new Deloitte study claims that:
    • A single data leak, according to 59% of customers, would make them less likely to choose the organization.
    • 51% of clients would overlook a business with a single data breach as long as it promptly fixes the problem. Maintaining compliance with the most recent rules enables you to identify, comprehend, and get ready for data breaches that may have an influence on your company, harm your brand's reputation, and erode client confidence. Information security compliance forces you to inform customers about a breach, preventing you from jeopardizing the reputation of your company.
  • Improved Data Management: The firms must keep track of the sensitive consumer information they collect, be aware of how and where they store the data, and be able to quickly access, handle, and amend that information in order to remain in compliance with data security rules. Organizations are compelled by these regulations to modify and improve their data management skills in a way that not only protects privacy but also boosts operational effectiveness.
  • Improved Security: Businesses must create a cybersecurity program, adopt an organizational-level cybersecurity policy, and name a chief information security officer in order to comply with the laws. This in turn aids in risk mitigation and handling data breaches.
  • Enhanced Accountability and Access Controls: Businesses must develop senior-level accountability for the strategic management of security and cyber risk in order to comply with cybersecurity regulations. Additionally, businesses must set up efficient and suitable risk management frameworks to monitor and regulate access to the security systems and databases that house sensitive consumer data.

What are the Types of Data Subject to Cybersecurity Compliance?

The protection of sensitive data, such as personally identifiable information (PII), protected health information (PHI), and financial information, is the main emphasis of cybersecurity and data protection laws and regulations.

  • Personally identifiable information: Any information that is used to specifically identify a person is considered personally identifiable information. Examples include:
    • First and last name
    • Date of birth
    • Social security number
    • Address
    • Mother's maiden name
  • Protected health information: Information that is used to identify a person or specifics about their medical history or current treatments are included in protected health information, for example:
    • Medical background
    • Data on admissions
    • Records of prescriptions
    • Dates and times of medical appointments
    • Insurance documents
  • Private financial information: Payment method details, credit card numbers, and other information that might be exploited to steal a person's identity or money are all considered to be financial data. For instance, stolen credit card information might be used to make unlawful transactions. Private financial information includes:
    • Personal identification numbers
    • Numbers on credit cards
    • Account numbers for banks
    • Pin codes for debit cards
    • Credit ratings and credit history
  • Other sensitive information: Other sensitive information that might be governed by national, regional, or sectoral laws is:
    • An IP address
    • Passwords, usernames, and email addresses
    • Biometrics such as voiceprints, face recognition data, and fingerprints are examples of authenticators.
    • Marital status
    • Race
    • Religion

What is the Importance of an NGFW for Cybersecurity Compliance?

Most businesses use firewalls as a baseline security measure, but due to the dynamic nature of today's threats, only next-generation firewalls can offer adequate security. According to Gartner's definition, a next-generation firewall (NGFW) is a "deep-packet inspection firewall that progresses beyond port/protocol inspection and blocking to encompass application-level inspection, intrusion prevention, and bringing intelligence from beyond the firewall."

As their name implies, next-generation firewalls are an improved version of the conventional firewall and provide the same advantages. Like conventional firewalls, next-generation firewalls (NGFW) incorporate VPN support and both static and dynamic packet filtering to guarantee that all connections between the network, internet, and firewall are legitimate and safe. In order to map IPs, both kinds of firewalls need to be able to convert network and port addresses.

The classic firewall and next-generation firewalls differ in important ways as well. The capacity of an NGFW to filter packets depending on applications distinguishes it from the other solutions the most obviously. These firewalls are able to detect apps using analysis and signature matching and have considerable control and visibility over those applications. They can discriminate between trusted programs and malicious ones, which are subsequently recognized via SSL decryption, employing whitelists or a signature-based IPS. NGFWs, in contrast to the majority of conventional firewalls, also include a way for future upgrades to be sent.

The distinct advantages that next-generation firewalls provide their users' businesses are what set them apart from competitors. NGFWs can prevent malware from accessing a network, which is something that standard firewalls are unable to do. They have improved capabilities for dealing with APTs (APTs). Because NGFWs combine the functions of firewalls, antivirus software, and other security programs into a single solution, they might be a low-cost alternative for businesses wishing to enhance their fundamental security. This has elements like application awareness, inspection services, a protection system, and an awareness tool that are advantageous to the providing under all circumstances.

A firewall must be installed by every firm. Having a next-generation firewall is almost as vital in the environment of today. Threats to smaller networks and bigger ones are always evolving. With the adaptability of an NGFW, it safeguards systems and businesses from a far wider range of invasions. Security experts should carefully analyze the advantages that these firewalls may offer even if they may not be the best option for every firm because of their significant upside.

What are the Major Cybersecurity Compliance Requirements?

Standards for cybersecurity compliance are established by several distinct regulatory obligations. Despite being different approaches, they often have the same target audience and try to do the same thing: develop regulations that are straightforward to adhere to and that take into account the technological environment of the business, eventually protecting sensitive data.

Major compliance requirements could be applicable on a local and worldwide level based on the company's location, operations, and data processing marketplaces. Regulatory controls restrict the types of information that make up the data that companies maintain. The primary concern is data security which includes personal information that may be used to identify an individual, such as full name, personal number, social security number, address, date of birth, or other sensitive information like a person's health. Companies that have access to sensitive data are more vulnerable since they are frequent targets of cyber attacks.


The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act is known by the initials HIPAA. Congress approved this law in 1996, and it includes rules intended to safeguard the privacy, accuracy, and accessibility of personal health information (PHI). Healthcare providers, health clearinghouses, healthcare plans, and business partners handling PHI are subject to HIPAA regulations. We advise that you speak with a competent attorney with experience in regulatory compliance if you are unsure whether HIPAA applies to you.


Federal agencies are required to create, record, and put into effect an information security and protection program under the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA), a statute of the United States approved in 2002. The wider E-Government Act of 2002, which FISMA is a component of, was passed to enhance the administration of electronic government services and procedures.

One of the most significant laws establishing federal data security rules and regulations is FISMA. It was put into place to control federal expenditure on information security while lowering the security risk to data and information belonging to the government. FISMA created a set of requirements and security standards that federal agencies must follow in order to accomplish these goals. Since then, state organizations in charge of running federal programs like Medicare have been brought under the FISMA's expanded purview. Any private companies that have a contract with the government are likewise subject to FISMA rules.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) published rules in April 2010 that mandate agencies to give FISMA auditors access to real-time system information. This allows for ongoing monitoring of information systems subject to FISMA regulation.


A non-federal information security need to establish security and protection procedures for credit card data is the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS). The PCI Security Standards Council oversees the standard, which is primarily managed by major credit card firms with the protection of cardholder data as its primary objective.

Regardless of the volume of transactions or credit cards handled each month, retailers that handle payment information must adhere to the PCI-DDS standard. Business owners must adhere to 12 basic standards, which include setting up firewalls, encrypting data, limiting access to credit card information, and creating and maintaining security systems, procedures, and policies.

Non-compliant businesses run the danger of losing their merchant license, which would prevent them from accepting credit card payments even for a while. Businesses without PCI-DSS increase their vulnerability to cyberattacks, which can harm their reputation and result in fines from regulatory agencies of up to $500,000.


A set of data privacy rules known as GDPR, or General Data Protection Regulation, was adopted by the EU in 2018 in an effort to "harmonize data privacy legislation across Europe". The GDPR targets all EU member states, and the EEA, as well as the transfer of personal data outside of those two geographic regions. This implies that regardless of where a company or organization is situated, it must comply with GDPR's requirements if it targets or gathers data on EU citizens. The GDPR's main objectives are to offer people more control over their personal data and to streamline the legal environment for firms operating internationally by harmonizing EU legislation. Regulations on personal data security, minimization, and privacy are included in the GDPR.

ISO/IEC 27001

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 27000 family of standards includes ISO/IEC 27001, a global standard for developing and administering Information Security Management Systems (ISMS).

Business accreditation to ISO27001 denotes adherence to compliance in all levels of the technological environment -workers, processes, tools, and systems- a whole setup to assure the integrity and security of consumer personal data. The standard contains meticulous operational procedures and practices that are necessary to create a dependable and resilient cybersecurity management system.


On April 20, 2001, the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) came into force. The Library Services and Technology Act, Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the Universal Service Discount Program, sometimes known as the E-rate, are all subject to restrictions as a result of these laws (Public Law 106-554). These limitations come in the form of specifications for Internet safety guidelines and technology that prevents particular materials from being accessible through the Internet by blocking or filtering them. For those libraries obtaining 2002 E-rate savings for Internet access or internal connections, the deadline for compliance with NCIPA was July 1, 2002. After the Supreme Court decision in 2003, the CIPA compliance date was July 1, 2004.

How Do I Start a Cybersecurity Compliance Program?

There is no one cybersecurity compliance solution that works for everyone, it could seem like a difficult endeavor. However, by starting with the five stages listed below, you may create a compliance program that will both benefit you and satisfy regulatory compliance needs. This includes the risk management procedure and rules, as well as the compliance staff.

  • Setting up a Compliance Team: The main driver of cybersecurity compliance in your company is the IT department. When putting into practice a comprehensive compliance program, a compliance team must be formed. While most cybersecurity procedures are normally handled by IT teams, overall cybersecurity does not exist in a vacuum. In other words, cooperation amongst all divisions is required for a business to maintain a strong cybersecurity posture and support compliance efforts.
  • Establishing a Process for Risk Analysis: There are four fundamental phases in the risk analysis process, but the names will differ depending on the compliance program:
    • Identify: It is necessary to identify any information systems, resources, or networks that access data.
    • Review: Review the data and evaluate the amount of risk associated with each kind. In each site that data will visit over its lifetime, assign a risk score.
    • Analyze: To calculate risk, use the analytical formula below: Probability of Breach x Effect or Cost
    • Set Tolerance: Making the decision to reduce, transfer, contest, or accept any identified risks.
  • Implementing Controls: Reducing or Transferring Risk: Setting up security measures to reduce or transfer cybersecurity risks would be the next stage. Cybersecurity control is a method to stop, stop, and stop threats and cyber attacks. Technical controls, like passwords and access control lists, or physical controls, like fences and security cameras, can be used as controls. These restrictions are as follows:
    • Encryption
    • Internet firewalls
    • Password guidelines
    • Cyber insurance
    • Plan for responding to incidents among employees
    • Access management
    • Plan for patch management Since there is a significant need for these controls, there are several cybersecurity solutions that assist you with this stage. Visit the NIST 800-53 Risk Management Framework and navigate to Section 2.4 Security and Privacy Controls for an illustration of security and privacy controls.
  • Formulating Rules: After putting controls in place, you must write any policies or instructions that IT teams, staff members, or other stakeholders need to follow. The creation of these regulations is helpful for future internal and external audits.
  • Monitoring and Speedy Reaction: Maintaining constant oversight of your compliance program is essential as new legislation or revised versions of old policies are released. A compliance program's objective is to recognize and control risks, as well as to identify and stop cyber threats before they result in a significant data breach. Additionally, it's crucial to have business procedures in place that let you respond rapidly to threats.

What Does a Cybersecurity Compliance Analyst Do?

A compliance analyst's job includes doing audits and assessments as well as supporting risk management reviews and third-party evaluations. Your aim in this position is to guarantee the data and systems of an organization's confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA). Along with managing reporting on cybersecurity compliance to internal and external stakeholders, you collaborate with teams throughout the enterprise to identify and address compliance issues. You oversee compliance activities to fulfill internal and external deadlines and assist in setting a priority list for the most important compliance gaps to be fixed first. You record the organization's cybersecurity compliance posture in written reports.

Research, data analysis, and original problem-solving are the main priorities of cybersecurity analysts. Daily duties can change. They entail checking internal databases for system flaws and online criminals. They suggest using outside intelligence to forecast and plan for potential cyber threats in the future. Analysts in cybersecurity are excellent managers and communicators. They are essential in making connections with other organizational activities.

Cybersecurity analysts have a wide range of opportunities as their careers develop. They can follow the manager's path to managing a security team. They are able to advance to Chief Security Officer. The security department for the entire company is overseen by a CSO. They have the option of continuing along a more technical path. This entails developing engineering or system architecture abilities. They keep performing analytical work while beginning to incorporate some restricted independent engineering tasks. At a higher level, they work in collaboration with other teams or engineers. Some of them work as cybersecurity analysts for internal teams. From analysts, independent consultants can also be made. They use their knowledge and expertise to launch their own business or nonprofits.

What Sort of Skills Does a Compliance Analyst Need?

First and foremost, cybersecurity analysts need to be well-versed in research, analysis, and problem-solving techniques. They also require a solid understanding of information security and information systems. If you work in security, you should be well aware of what security entails.

Skills in project management are also crucial. This is not technical knowledge. It's not the same as being the mechanic on a car. It focuses more on effective time, people, and data management. For entry-level cybersecurity analyst positions, this kind of managerial expertise is required. First-level supervisors, who may have to monitor deadlines and tight timetables, should also be aware of it.

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, cybersecurity analysts need to keep current. They need to be informed about emerging risks and effective defenses. They must understand how to recognize and minimize vulnerabilities. In order to reduce the chance of an attack, they must also prepare their networks for these dangers.

The IT and cybersecurity industries provide a wide variety of certifications. You could be unsure about which should be your main priority. You should pursue your CompTIA Security+ certification as a starter. As you advance, you should focus on earning your CompTIA CySA+ (cybersecurity analyst) and CompTIA PenTest+ certifications (penetration tester). You should strive to get your Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP+) credentials as your career progresses.

Being a cybersecurity analyst has countless career options. It is a fulfilling job path and provides you with a ton of room for future progress.