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What are Types of Cyber Attacks?

A cyber attack is a sequence of acts taken by threat actors in order to obtain unauthorized access to computers, computer networks, or other computing systems, steal data, or inflict harm. Any place may be used to conduct a cyber attack. An individual or a group can carry out the attack by employing one or more strategies, techniques, and procedures.

Cybercriminals, threat actors, bad actors, and hackers are various terms used to describe those who carry out cyber attacks. They can act alone, alongside other attackers, or as part of a larger criminal organization. They strive to find vulnerabilities in computer systems -problems or flaws- and exploit them to achieve their objectives.

When it comes to conducting cyberattacks, cybercriminals might have a variety of motives. Attacks are carried out by some for personal or financial benefit. Others are "hacktivists" who utilize technology to promote social or political objectives. Some of the attacks are part of nation-state cyber warfare operations against their adversaries, while others are carried out by known terrorist groups.

While an attacker might use a number of tactics to gain access to an IT system, the bulk of cyber-attacks follows the same pattern. Here are some of the most common types of cyber-attacks.

Cyber Attack Types

Figure 1. What are the types of Cyber Attcks

1. Malware

Malware attacks are any malicious program that is meant to harm or destroy a computer, server, client, computer network, and/or infrastructure without the knowledge of the end-user.

Malware is created, deployed, and sold for a variety of reasons, but the most common is to steal personal, financial, or commercial information. Cyber attackers almost always focus their tactics, methods, and procedures on acquiring access to privileged credentials and accounts to carry out their objective, regardless of their reasons. The majority of malware types fall into one of the following categories:

  • Virus: When a computer virus is run, it can propagate itself by altering other programs and injecting dangerous code. It is one of the most difficult forms of malware to delete since it is the only sort of malware that may "infect" other files.
  • Worm: A worm has the ability to self-replicate without the assistance of the end-user and may swiftly infect whole networks by going from one system to the next.
  • Trojan: Trojan malware is one of the most difficult forms of malware to detect since it masquerades as legal software. This sort of malware includes harmful code and instructions that, if executed by the victim, allow the infection to function undetected. It's frequently used to allow additional viruses to access the system.
  • Hybrid malware: Modern malware is frequently a "hybrid," or a mixture of dangerous software kinds. For example, "bots" start off as Trojans and then transform into worms once they've been executed. Individual users are regularly targeted as part of a wider network-wide cyber attack.
  • Adware: Adware is a type of software that displays unsolicited and aggressive advertising (for example, pop-up adverts) to the end-user.
  • Malvertising: Malvertising is the use of legal advertisements to distribute malware to end-user computers.
  • Spyware: Spyware collects credentials and passwords, as well as browser history and other information from an unwary end-user.
  • Ransomware: Ransomware attacks computers, encrypts files, and holds the decryption key for ransom until the victim pays the ransom. Ransomware attacks on businesses and government agencies are on the rise, costing businesses millions of dollars in the process of paying the attackers to restore critical systems. Some of the most well-known ransomware families are Cyptolocker, Petya, and Loky.

2. Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks

A Man in the Middle (MitM) attack happens when an unauthorized entity intercepts a communication between two systems or individuals. The interceptor tries to eavesdrop on the conversation or mimic one of the permitted parties in such a manner that the intrusion is not noticed.

A MitM attack's goal is usually to intercept transmissions of personal data that might be valuable, sensitive, or profitable if used fraudulently (e.g. logins, account details, credit card information, etc.). A man-in-the-middle attack can take various forms, and a few of them are mentioned below:

  • IP spoofing attacks: In the internet world, every system linked to a network or website has an IP address. These IP addresses are used by hackers or attackers to gain access to a network as an authorized user. The network accepts the system after the attackers replicate the IP address of an authorized system. The user believes it is connecting directly with the web application, while the man-in-the-middle intercepts all data.
  • Email Hijacking: In this hack, the attacker intends to use an email account to obtain information. The attacker gains access to the user's email account, waits for the email with the user's credentials to arrive, and then takes the information.
  • HTTPS Spoofing: While it is impossible to produce a duplicate HTTPS address, the hacker attempts to construct a comparable web address that appears to be genuine. It employs alphabets from a foreign language that resemble the HTTPS address currently in use.
  • Wi-Fi Eavesdropping: It is easy to eavesdrop on a device connected to an unencrypted Wi-Fi network, hence public Wi-Fi is not regarded as safe. Occasionally, the attacker creates an 'Evil Twin' internet hotspot that looks identical to the authorized hotspot connection.
  • DNS Spoofing: A hacker can set up a DNS (Domain Name Server). An attacker connects the DNS name of a legitimate website to a different IP address in this form of cyber attack. The hacker has access to the user's personal and security information the minute the user clicks on the bogus page.
  • SSL Stripping: SSL Stripping is an encryption technology that uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL). Assuming the identity of the user, the attacker intercepts and forwards traffic. The user is logged into a copy of the hacker's website.
  • ARP Spoofing: In a local area network using the ARP protocol, this sort of attack can be carried out. When the user makes a request, the attacker impersonates the device and delivers a bogus reply.

3. SQL Injections

SQL injection (SQLi) is a technique for manipulating SQL code in order to gain access to restricted resources, such as sensitive data, or to execute malicious SQL commands. A SQL injection, if done successfully, can disclose intellectual property, client data, or a private company's administration credentials.

SQL injection attacks may affect any program that uses a SQL database, with websites being the most prevalent target. SQL databases include MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server.

SQL injections are one of the most prevalent security attacks, as indicated by their inclusion in the OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project ) top 10 online application security risks list. With the availability of automated tools for conducting SQL injections, the risk of SQLi exploits has expanded, as has the harm they may inflict. Because attackers had to manually carry out these attacks in the past, the chances of a company being targeted with a SQL injection were rather restricted. SQL injection attacks come in a variety of forms.

  • SQLi in-band: An in-band SQLi, also known as a traditional SQLi, occurs when hackers utilize the same channel (or band) to trigger database failures and gather attack results. The most prevalent approaches for achieving an in-band SQLi are error-based and union-based attacks. Error-based injection approaches cause the database to generate error messages that disclose details about the database's structure. Prepared statements that abuse the SQL Union function, which aggregates the results of numerous searches into one result, is used in union-based attacks.
  • SQLi inferential: An inferential SQL injection, also known as a blind SQL injection, occurs when hackers transmit data payloads to a database server in order to watch its reaction and behavior without being able to see what is happening inside the database. The server's response gives the attacker information they might use to fine-tune their attack plan. A Boolean or time-based inferential SQLi is possible. A Boolean SQLi asks for a response using true or false statements, whereas a time-based SQLi asks for a certain response period.
  • Out-of-band SQLi: When hackers use the domain name system or HTTP queries to access data, this is known as an out-of-band SQLi. When a web server is too sluggish or an in-band SQLi isn't viable to do, an out-of-band SQLi is frequently used.

4. Password Attack

At some point in their lives, everyone has created a password using their birth date and year. People frequently choose to use their personal information as a password since it is easier to remember. Such insecure and risky passwords, on the other hand, are readily hacked and broken into by many hackers all over the world. Hackers use a similar pattern in order to crack your password and get access to your system. A hacker stealing your password is referred to as a password attack. According to a study conducted in 2020, unprotected and compromised credentials were responsible for 81 percent of data breaches. The top five password attacks are as follows:

  • Phishing: Phishing is one of the most popular forms of password attacks. Phishing is essentially a hacker impersonating a trustworthy entity to whom you may respond and extorting all of your personal information so that they can easily break into your system. A hacker might contact you in a variety of ways in order to lure you into their trap. In regular phishing, you receive an email from a website that you feel is reliable. You click on the link in the email to reset your password, but you don't double-check the data or the website. The website turned out to be a hacked and fraudulent one, and the thief took your credentials and personal information. Regular phishing is the term for this form of password attack. Spear phishing is accomplished by sending a malicious email to a friend, coworker, or associate. The hacker intends to infect your machine by clicking on the link in the infected email. In smishing and/or vishing you've probably received a message from your bank warning you not to give out your personal information or sensitive information over the phone to anybody who asks because you might be the victim of a phishing password attempt.
  • Brute Force Attacks: The trial and error strategy is comparable to this form of password attack. In a matter of seconds, a hacker attempts millions of the most popular password combinations. A brute force attack is what this is called. To protect yourself from password attacks, make sure you use a strong and complicated password, activate multi-factor authentication(MFA), and set up remote access.
  • Dictionary Attacks: A brute force attack is comparable to this password attack. The hackers scribble down the most often used terms by users before breaking into the system. For instance, you frequently use your pet's or children's names as passwords. By gaining access to such information, anyone may simply hack into your critical information. Words that are important to you, such as your hometown or loved ones' names, are included in sophisticated dictionary hacks. To avoid dictionary attacks, avoid using dictionary terms as passwords and invest in a password manager.
  • Keylogger Attacks: Keyloggers are malicious programs that are installed on your computer that track every keystroke you make and send the information to a hacker. Essentially, this implies that a user will download software from an unknown source, which will then install a keylogger without their knowledge. To avoid such attacks, check your physical hardware and conduct a virus scan.
  • Credential Stuffing: If you've been the victim of a malicious attack in the past, make sure you change all of your passwords completely since hackers often keep repeating combinations of previous usernames in the hopes that the victim won't change them. To avoid credential stuffing, keep an eye on your accounts.

5. Cross-site Scripting

In the "OWASP Top 10," cross-site Scripting (XSS) is ranked seventh, making it one of the most hazardous and common internet threats. In the hands of an attacker, it's a lethal weapon, thus you need to implement anti-XSS safeguards in your app and webserver to defend it against Cross-site Scripting attacks.

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a frequent flaw that allows an attacker to inject arbitrary code into a website, allowing him or her to steal cookies and user data, as well as access and change the content on the user's web page.

Persistent XSS, Reflected XSS, and DOM-based XSS are the three different forms of cross-site scripting (XSS). Let's take a closer look at each of these sorts to learn more about how they operate and their side effects.

  • Persistent cross-site scripting (XSS): Persistent XSS, also known as Type-I XSS and Stored CSS, happens when an attacker injects malicious material (payload) directly into the application. By exploiting their vulnerabilities or employing social engineering methods, the payload may be injected into the program, its database, or its web server. If input validations are not used, the payload (malicious code) is permanently saved by the program. Then, because the attack is immediately installed alongside the program, it spreads to all users of the app. It may be used to steal data from a user or to plan and carry out more serious attacks.
  • Reflected XSS: The most prevalent kind of Cross-site Scripting is Reflected XSS, also known as Type-II XSS and Non-Persistent CSS (XSS). When an attacker embeds harmful code in a link and transmits it to the victim, this is known as phishing. The victim is duped into clicking on the link, which transmits the code to the appropriate website. The malicious code (payload) is delivered to and returned from the website as well as to the victim's browser through the link. As a consequence, the browser treats it as if it were website code, but it really works for the attacker. Because Reflected XSS is not persistent (as opposed to Persistent XSS), the attacker must give the malicious code (payload) to each victim individually. Social engineering tactics are commonly used in such attacks, such as sending an email or a message on a social network with a link that the victim is enticed to click.
  • DOM-based XSS: DOM-based XSS, also known as Form-0 XSS, is a type of sophisticated Cross-site Scripting that combines Persistent XSS and Reflected XSS. It happens when a hacker creates a link that contains harmful code (payload). The victim is then enticed to click on the link, allowing the code to be sent to a website. The website loads certain stuff into the user's browser, but it does not contain the code in the page itself (unlike as in Reflected XSS). The web page, on the other hand, executes its normal code, which in turn executes the malicious code in the browser. Finally, the payload executes in the browser, carrying out the attacker's wicked ambitions.

The distinction between DOM-based XSS and the other two XSS kinds is slight. The other two are caused by insecure server-side code (backend), but DOM-based XSS is caused by insecure client-side code (frontend). It may be undetectable to the server in some circumstances since it occurs on the client-side.

6. Internet of Things (IoT) Attacks

Today, technology and our daily lives are inextricably linked. Our cellphones are used to control home automation systems. And how do artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the internet play a role in our lives? Cybersecurity dangers exist on all of our internet networks and gadgets.

The same may be said for digital assets, such as IoT systems held by companies. Your automatic employee check-in console might be hacked by a malevolent individual. They have the ability to break into your company's network. Someone may also guess your insecure password. They'll be able to take control of your smart home security system at that point.

An IoT attack is any such attack on an IoT device or network. It has the potential to infect your devices with malware. Alternatively, gain into your systems through security flaws such as unoptimized user permissions.

Devices linked to the IoT system can be hacked as a result of IoT attacks. This applies to both phones and PCs. Cybercriminals may exploit a security flaw in your smart TV. They can quickly take over your WiFi network. IoT apps, software, and operating systems can all be compromised as a result of an IoT attack.

As we get more accustomed to linked equipment, IoT attacks are becoming more widespread. Different components of an IoT system, such as hardware and software, might be attacked by cybercriminals. The following are some of the most prevalent IoT attacks:

  • Device Attacks: Every day, more and more devices are being attacked. Many IoT systems rely on smartphones as their primary hardware. They're in charge of the apps that control and manage IoT devices. This includes any automation equipment in your house or workplace. As a result, IoT cyber-attacks frequently target cellphones. According to Nokia, Android devices are more susceptible, accounting for 26.64 percent of all infections. Furthermore, Windows-based PCs account for 38.92 percent of all infections. In all, the number of hacked IoT devices climbed by 100% in 2020.
  • IoT Automation Systems Attacks: Automation is increasingly pervasive in both our homes and workplaces. Businesses increasingly rely on technology for everything from climate control to security. It is what contributes to a safe working environment. The same IoT solutions that increase efficiency might, however, constitute a security risk. Consider the situation with the Milwaukee couple. Their smart home was hacked, and hackers gained control of the thermostat and security cameras. They also turned up the heat to 90 degrees and played obscene music.
  • Smart Device IoT Attacks: Smart gadgets, like your phone, are vulnerable to IoT attacks. Smart TVs, smart cameras, wearables, smart appliances like washing machines, and other items may be included in the list. Vulnerabilities exist in any device linked to an IoT network.
  • IoT Apps and Aolutions Attacks: IoT apps operate on an operating system such as Android. You may also operate your gadgets and automation systems via mobile and laptop apps. An intruder can obtain access to your IoT network and compromise operating systems and software. It may be the applications on your phone, your smart TV, or the operating system itself.

7. Rootkits

Viruses and other malware are serious dangers. And rootkits are possibly the most hazardous, both in terms of the harm they can do and the difficulty in locating and removing them.

Rootkits are malicious applications that are designed to operate invisibly on your computer.. Even if you don't notice them, they're working. Rootkits allow fraudsters to take control of your machine from afar.

Rootkits can include a variety of tools, from password-stealing malware to modules that make it easier for hackers to steal your credit card or online banking information. Hackers can use rootkits to bypass or deactivate security software, as well as track the keys you press on your laptop, making it easier for crooks to steal your personal information.

Rootkits are particularly difficult to detect because they may hijack or subvert security software, making it probable that this sort of malware will remain on your machine for a long time, inflicting considerable harm. Sometimes erasing your computer's operating system and rebuilding from scratch is the only method to entirely remove a well-hidden rootkit.

What causes rootkits to infiltrate your computer? It's possible that you'll open an email and download a file that appears to be safe but is a virus. You might even download a rootkit by mistake if you use an infected mobile app. Rootkits come in a variety of shapes and sizes. There are five different kinds of rootkits.

  1. Rootkit in Hardware or Firmware: The name of this sort of rootkit originates from the location on your computer where it is placed. This form of the virus can infect your computer's hard drive or system BIOS, which is software that runs on a little memory chip on the motherboard. It has the potential to infect your router as well. Hackers can use these rootkits to intercept data written to disk.
  1. Rootkit for the Bootloader: Your computer's bootloader is a critical component. The operating system is loaded when you turn on your computer. A bootloader toolkit then attacks the system, replacing your computer's original bootloader with a customized one. This implies that the rootkit is enabled even before the operating system on your machine is turned on.
  1. Rootkit for Memory: This form of rootkit lurks in the RAM (Random Access Memory) of your computer. In the background, these rootkits will carry out malicious actions. What's the good news? These rootkits can only be used for a short length of time. They only exist in your computer's RAM and will vanish after you reboot your system, however, they may take further work to remove.
  1. Rootkit for Applications: Application rootkits replace your computer's normal files with rootkit files. They may also alter the way that ordinary apps operate. Apps like Word, Paint, and Notepad may be infected with rootkits. You are giving hackers access to your computer every time you launch these apps. The problem is that infected programs continue to function properly, making it difficult for users to discover the rootkit.
  1. Rootkits that Operate in Kernel Mode: These rootkits are designed to attack the operating system's core. These can be used by cybercriminals to alter the way your operating system works. All they have to do now is add their code. This gives them simple access to your computer and allows them to steal your personal information with ease.

8. Zero-day Exploit

The phrase "zero-day" refers to newly found security flaws that hackers can exploit to attack systems. The phrase "zero-day" alludes to the fact that the vendor or developer just recently discovered the fault, leaving them with "zero days" to repair it. A zero-day attack occurs when hackers take advantage of weakness before engineers have a chance to fix it.

0-day is another spelling of zero-day. The terms vulnerability, exploit, and attack are frequently used in conjunction with zero-day, and it's important to know the difference:

A zero-day vulnerability is one that attackers discover before the vendor is aware of it. Because vendors are ignorant of zero-day vulnerabilities, no fix exists, making attacks more likely to succeed. A zero-day exploit is a technique used by hackers to attack systems that have a previously unknown vulnerability. A zero-day attack is when a zero-day exploit is used to harm or steal data from a system that has been exposed to a vulnerability.

9. Birthday Attack

Birthday attacks are based on the probability principle and belong to the class of brute force attacks. It's a cryptographic attack that relies heavily on the birthday paradox problem to succeed. These attacks are meant to take advantage of two parties' communication and rely heavily on the commonality identified between several random attacks and a given degree of permutation.

According to probability theory, the Birthday Paradox Problem states that if there are "n" persons in a room, there is a chance that just a handful of them will have birthdays on the same day. However, it's crucial to note that we're not looking for people who have the same birthdate, but rather people who share the same birthday. Let's look at an example to better comprehend the concept:

Assume that a typical year has 365 days. Assemble a group of 23 individuals in the room. So "A" has a 1/365 chance of sharing your birthday with another 22 individuals, making your chance 22/365. If the birthdays of "A" and "B" do not match, "B" has a 21/365 chance of matching the birthdays of the remaining persons in the room. If "B" likewise fails to find a match, "C" will have a 20/365 chance, and so on. When all the possibilities of all the persons in the room are added together, such as 22/365+21/365+20/365 and so on, you obtain a total chance of 50%. Similarly, you'll need 70 individuals in the room to get a probability of 99.9%, and 366 people to reach a probability of 100%.

Birthday attacks employ probabilistic reasoning to lessen the cost of obtaining a matched collision and to estimate the likelihood of a hash collision occurring within a specified number. Finding a specific hash collision is, therefore, more challenging than finding a matched hash collision with the same values.

10. Phishing

Phishing is one of the most frustrating problems we have. Despite the fact that most of us know what it is and how it works, we are nevertheless caught off by surprise. Phishing, which involves fraudsters sending emails posing as legitimate companies, targets hundreds of millions of organizations every day. The mails either include a malicious file or redirect them to a bogus website that gathers personal data. The thieves' ultimate goal remains the same, but they've come up with a variety of ways to get there. Here are some of the most common types of phishing attacks:

  • E-mail Phishing: The majority of phishing attacks employ email. The thief will set up a bogus domain that imitates a genuine business and send out hundreds of generic requests. Character substitution is common in fake domains, such as putting 'r' and 'n' next to each other to generate 'rn' instead of 'm'. Alternatively, they might use the organization's name in the local section of the email address in the hopes that the sender's name will display in the recipient's inbox as 'PayPal.' There are several methods to recognize a phishing email, but you should always check the email address of any message that encourages you to click a link or download an attachment.
  • Spear Phishing: There are two more, more complex kinds of email-based phishing. The first is spear phishing, which refers to malicious emails delivered to a single individual. Criminals that carry out this type of crime will already have some or all of the following information on the victim. Their name, their place of employment, their job title, their email address, and specific details about their job position are all required.
  • Whaling: Whaling attacks are much more focused, with key executives being targeted. Whaling has the same end purpose as any other type of phishing attack, but the approach is far more covert. Because the crooks are aiming to resemble senior workers, tricks like phony links and harmful URLs aren't effective. Whaling scams involving fictitious tax returns are becoming more widespread. Criminals prize tax forms because they offer a wealth of information such as names, addresses, Social Security numbers, and bank account information.
  • Smishing and Vishing: When it comes to smishing and vishing, phone calls take the role of emails. Smishing entails thieves sending text messages (with material similar to email phishing), whereas vishing is a telephone call. A popular vishing scam includes a criminal impersonating a fraud investigator (from either the card company or the bank) informing the victim that their account has been compromised. The criminal will next ask the victim to supply payment card information in order to authenticate their identity or to transfer funds to a "safe" account, which is the criminal's account.
  • Angler Phishing: Thieves can use a number of ways to fool individuals through social media, which is a relatively new attack vector. Fake URLs, cloned websites, postings, tweets, and instant messaging (which is effectively the same as smishing) can all be used to trick individuals into disclosing personal information or downloading malware. Criminals, on the other hand, may develop highly targeted attacks using the data that individuals freely disclose on social media.

11. Credential Reuse Attack

A credential reuse attack occurs when an attacker obtains valid credentials for one system and then attempts to compromise additional accounts/systems using the stolen credentials. Bots are commonly used by attackers for automation and scale, and they assume that most users repeat their identities and passwords across many platforms. According to statistics, just about 0.1 percent of hacked credentials would be successfully used on another service. To prevent credential reuse attacks make sure you use different credentials across different accounts/systems. Password managers can help you keep track of all the different credentials you use.

How to Prevent Cyber Attacks?

As a result of a simple system breach, we've all heard of organizations paying large fines or even going out of business. There are far too many threats out there for you to ignore. Everything from ransomware to phishing may cost you your career. We'll show you 10 Ways to Prevent Cyber Attacks and how to safeguard your business effectively.

  1. Educate Your Employees: One of the most common methods for cybercriminals to obtain access to your data is through your employees. They'll send phishing emails, posing as your firm and asking for personal information or access to certain files. Links might look legitimate to the inexperienced eye, and it's easy to fall into the trap. This is why personnel must be aware of their surroundings at all times. One of the most effective ways for combating cyber-attacks and other types of data breaches is to train your employees in cyberattack prevention and keep them updated about current cyber attacks.
  1. Make sure all of your software and systems are up to date: Cyberattacks usually arise as a result of out-of-date systems or software, exposing vulnerabilities. Hackers and cybercriminals take advantage of these loopholes in order to get access to your network. After they've gotten in, it's sometimes too late to take preventative steps.
  1. Make Endpoint Security a Priority: Endpoint security protects networks that use a remote bridge to connect to devices. With access points, mobile devices, tablets, and laptops linked to company networks pose a security risk. To secure these routes, endpoint protection software is necessary.
  1. Configure a Firewall: There are several sorts of sophisticated data breaches, and new ones emerge every day, sometimes even making a comeback. One of the most efficient strategies to defend yourself against any cyber attack is to put your network behind a firewall. A firewall system, which we can assist you with, will stop any brute force attack on your network and/or systems before they can cause any damage. Zenarmor is one of the best firewalls for home users and small businesses owners.
  1. Make a copy of your data: You must have your data backed up in the case of a disaster (typically a cyber attack) to avoid significant downtime, data loss, and financial loss.
  1. Keep track of who has access to your systems: Physical attacks on your computers are conceivable, believe it or not, so knowing who has access to your network is essential. Someone may go into your office or business and effortlessly plug a USB key with infected data into one of your computers, gaining access to or infecting your whole network. It's crucial to keep track of who has access to your computers. A perimeter security system is an excellent way to avoid both cybercrime and break-ins!
  1. Wifi Safety: In 2022, who doesn't have a wifi-enabled device? And that is precisely the problem: any device may get infected by connecting to a network, and if that infected device then connects to your company's network, your entire system is at risk. One of the safest things you can do for your systems is to secure and hide your wifi networks.
  1. Personal accounts for employees: Every application and program requires a unique login for each employee. Having many people connect with the same credentials might put your company in danger. Individual logins for each staff member might help you restrict the number of attack fronts. Users will only use their own logins and will log in just once each day. You won't just receive better security; you'll also get better usability.
  1. Access Control: As a business owner with workers, one of the concerns is that they may install software on company-owned devices that compromises your systems. It is beneficial to your security to have controlled admin permissions and to prevent your employees from installing or accessing particular files on your network. It's your company, so safeguard it!
  1. Passwords: It might be risky to use the same password for everything. Once a hacker has your password, they have access to your whole system as well as any applications you use. Having separate passwords for each program you use is a great way to improve your security, and changing them frequently will keep you safe from both external and internal dangers.

Are Cyber Attacks Illegal?

Most of the cyberattacks fall under the category of cybercrimes. Cybercrime is classified as illegal activities involving a computer, a computer network, or a networked device. Profit-driven cybercriminals or hackers are responsible for the majority of cybercrime, although not all. Cybercrime may be committed by individuals or groups. Some cybercriminals are well-organized, use sophisticated tactics, and have a high degree of technical knowledge. Others are fresh to the world of hacking. Cybercrime is rarely used to harm computers for reasons other than financial gain. These might be personal or political in nature. Here are some specific examples of several types of cybercrime:

  • Email and internet fraud.
  • Identity theft.
  • Theft of financial or credit card information.
  • Corporate data theft and selling.
  • Extortion (demanding money to prevent a threatened attack).
  • Attacks by ransomware (a type of cyber extortion).
  • Cryptojacking
  • Cyberespionage (where hackers access government or company data).

The European Convention on Cybercrime has been signed by the US. The convention casts a wide net, defining cybercrime as a number of hostile computer-related acts. For example:

  • Intercepting or stealing data without permission.
  • Interfering with systems in such a way that a network is put at risk.
  • Copyright infringement.
  • Gambling that is not legal.
  • Selling illicit goods on the internet.
  • Soliciting, manufacturing, or possessing child pornography are all prohibited activities.