The word "network security" refers to the tools, techniques, and policies used to monitor, detect, and respond to illegal network intrusions and safeguard digital assets, such as network traffic. When it comes to protecting your network, hardware and software solutions (and resources like knowledgeable security analysts, hunters, and incident responders) are all part of the solution.
To protect the network against cyberattacks, hackers, and staff irresponsibility, network security is employed. Hardware, software, and cloud services all play a role in ensuring the safety of your network.
Using a variety of network security technologies creates a multi-layered defensive mechanism in a competent network security system. This approach, known as defense-in-depth, is based on the idea that even if a danger manages to get past one layer of protection, the others will keep it out of the network. As a result of this, each layer can monitor, identify, and remediate threats actively.
The Network Security Devices will be discussed in this article. Let's start with a list of all network security devices and then mention them briefly.
Intrusion detection system (IDS)
Unified Threat Management (UTM)
Wireless intrusion prevention and detection system (WIDPS)
Network access control (NAC)
Network load balancer (NLB)
Email Security Gateways
Content Filtering Devices
Network Device Backup and Recovery
What are the types of Network Security Devices?
It is dangerous to rely on a single line of defense. A cunning opponent can finally overcome a single protective measure. Multiple defensive layers provide regulations and control to ensure that only authorized users may access the network and its resources. Network security should demonstrate the following three phases of security:
- Protection: Correct system and network configuration
- Detection: The capacity to recognize configuration changes or suspicious network traffic
- Response: Immediate response to detected concerns to expeditiously ensure a safe condition.
There are a lot of options when it comes to incorporating network security into your service offerings. This is by no means a complete list of security tools, but some examples include:
Incoming and outgoing traffic on a network is controlled by firewalls, which have established security policies. Firewalls protect your computer from unwanted traffic and are an essential component of any modern computing environment. Firewalls, particularly Next-Generation Firewalls(NGFWs), play a critical role in network security, preventing malware and application-layer attacks.
A. Packet-filtering firewall
The first and simplest type of firewall is one that filters packets. At the network layer, they merely compare the source and destination IP addresses, protocol, and source/destination port of a data packet against set rules to determine whether or not to allow or refuse it. Packet filtering firewalls are inherently stateless, which means they monitor each packet independently without keeping track of the established connection or packets that have gone through it previously. As a result, the capacity of these firewalls to defend against sophisticated threats and assaults is significantly compromised.
B. Proxy firewall
Proxy firewalls, also known as application-level gateways, are constructed via an application-layer proxy server. Instead of directly connecting to the internal network, the connection is established through the proxy firewall. The proxy firewall will initially receive a request from an external client. The proxy firewall then checks the request's legitimacy before sending it on behalf of the client to one of the internal devices. An internal client may also request website access, with the proxy device sending the request while concealing the client's name and location. Consequently, one of the primary benefits of proxy firewalls is the provision of privacy.
C. Stateful packet-filtering firewall
Stateful inspection firewalls inspect packets in addition to validating and recording existing connections to provide more robust and comprehensive protection. After establishing a connection, they generate a state table including the source/destination IP addresses and source/destination ports. Rather than relying on a hard-coded set of rules based on this information, they generate their own rules dynamically to enable the prediction of incoming network traffic. Not-belonging-to-a-verified-active-connection data packets are conveniently refused. Stateful firewalls feature significant logging capabilities that may be employed for monitoring and troubleshooting.
D. Web application firewall (WAF)
A web application firewall or WAF aids in the protection of web applications by filtering and monitoring HTTP traffic between a web application and the Internet. It generally protects online applications from several threats, including cross-site forgery, cross-site scripting (XSS), file inclusion, and SQL injection. A WAF is protection at protocol layer 7 (in the OSI model) and is not meant to guard against all forms of assaults. Typically, this technique of attack mitigation is part of a suite of technologies that, when combined, provide comprehensive protection against a variety of attack vectors.
By placing a WAF in front of a web application, the application is protected from the Internet. A proxy server protects the identity of a client machine by acting as an intermediary, whereas a WAF is a form of reverse proxy that shields the server from exposure by requiring clients to pass through it before contacting the server.
Malware and other potentially harmful applications may be detected and removed using an antivirus tool.
It was formerly possible to employ antivirus software to protect against only viruses. As a result, they now protect from malware, ransomware, and spyware, among other threats. In some cases, email phishing attempts can also be prevented by antivirus software. Network security devices and tools should be able to detect threats from any source, including dangerous programs and viruses via email.
3. Intrusion detection system (IDS)
IDS is a hardware or software program that monitors a network for harmful activities or policy breaches, such as phishing. A security information and event management system is often used to report or gather any harmful activity or violation. Some intrusion detection systems (IDS) can respond immediately to intrusion detection.
Two major kinds of intrusion detection software systems exist host-based and network-based. These categories correspond to the placement of IDS sensors (on a host/endpoint or a network).
Some specialists categorize the market even further, citing perimeter IDS, VM-based IDS, stack-based IDS, signature-based IDS, and anomaly-based IDS (with acronyms matching the IDS' descriptive prefixes).
A. Intrusion Protection Systems (IPS)
When harmful behavior is detected on a network, an intrusion prevention system (IPS) takes action to prevent it, such as reporting, blocking, or dropping it. IPSs can be hardware or software.
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) can only identify harmful behavior, but they can't do anything about it other than inform an administrator. Next-generation firewalls and unified threat management (UTM) solutions often include intrusion prevention systems as an optional component. They must be strong enough to scan a large volume of traffic without slowing down network performance, like many other network security systems.
B. Host-based intrusion detection systems
HIDS is an acronym for "host-based intrusion detection system," a program that keeps an eye on a computer or network for any unusual behavior, such as invasions from outside or internal misuse of resources or data.
HIDS software, like a home security system, tracks abnormal activities and alerts network administrators. When using HIDS tools, you may easily search through the log files created by your apps to look for indicators of an intrusion and other irregularities. Automated detection is the primary purpose of HIDS tools, which eliminates the need to manually search through log files once they've been sorted and processed.
C. Network-based intrusion detection systems
A NIDS is a type of network intrusion detection system (NIDS) in which devices are intelligently dispersed throughout a network and passively monitor the traffic passing over them. NIDS can be hardware or software-based systems and can connect to various network media, such as Ethernet, FDDI, and others, depending on the manufacturer of the system. NIDS typically feature two network ports. Promiscuous mode listening and control and reporting are the primary functions of these tools.
4. Unified Threat Management (UTM)
UTM is an information security word that refers to a single security solution, and typically a single security appliance, that delivers numerous network security functions at a single location. Antivirus, anti-spyware, anti-spam, network firewalling, intrusion detection and prevention, content filtering, and leak protection are typical features of a UTM device. Some devices additionally include remote routing, network address translation (NAT), and support for virtual private networks (VPN). The solution's appeal is built on its simplicity, so enterprises that previously had different suppliers or appliances for each security activity can now have them all under a single vendor, backed by a single IT team or division, and managed from a single interface.
5. Wireless Intrusion Prevention and Detection System (WIDPS)
As specialized security equipment or integrated software program, the wireless intrusion prevention system (WIPS) is responsible for keeping an eye on the radio spectrum in the vicinity of the wireless network for any rogue access points or other dangers.
An administrator is alerted when a difference is identified between the MAC addresses of all wireless access points on a network and the known signatures of pre-authorized, known wireless access points. WIPS capable of analyzing the unique radio frequency signatures generated by wireless devices can avoid MAC address spoofing by blocking unfamiliar radio fingerprints.
6. Network Access Control (NAC)
These NAC systems provide visibility and access management for business networks by enforcing policies on devices and users.
Because of the increasing number of mobile devices connecting to networks and posing security concerns, businesses must have the tools necessary to monitor, manage access to, and ensure compliance with their network security policies.
Using a NAC system, insecure nodes can't get access to the network by being blocked from using it, isolated, or given only limited access to computing resources.
7. Network Load Balancer (NLB)
A Network Load Balancer operates at the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model's fourth layer. It is capable of processing millions of queries per second. After receiving a connection request, the load balancer picks a target from the target group for the default rule. It tries to establish a TCP connection with the given destination on the port specified in the listener settings.
NLB is created particularly for high-performance online traffic that is not typical. NLB can handle millions of queries per second while retaining extremely low latency.
8. Web Filter
The primary purpose of a web filtering device is to improve online security, but it also provides some useful secondary benefits. A web content filter equipment stops Internet users from accessing websites that host malware and ransomware. It protects organizations, networks, and users from a variety of web-based threats and decreases the chance of a financial or data loss resulting from acts of cybercriminals.
In the workplace, web content filtering appliances can be configured to prevent employees from visiting non-work-related websites and "cyberslacking," thereby increasing productivity. In any public Internet access location (such as a store, a school, or a workplace), a web content filter appliance can prevent customers, students, diners, and employees from being exposed to inappropriate online content.
9. Spam Filter
Spam filtering solutions were created to assist consumers to detect, identifying, and avoiding unsolicited emails. Today, the majority of anti-spam companies utilize effective email filters to classify messages, hence enhancing email deliverability. Here is a list of the most prevalent anti-spam filters:
- These filters prevent spam from accessing your email by employing user-defined criteria.
- Bayesian filters - one of the most powerful filters ever created - employ cutting-edge technology to examine the statistical likelihood of every incoming communication.
- These filters examine the language and substance of communication to evaluate whether or not it is safe or spam.
- These filters block all emails from an individualized list of spammers known as a blacklist.
- Challenge-response filters - the primary function of a challenge-response filter is to verify that a human is transmitting the message.
- Before acquiring authorization to send an email, a challenge-response filter requires the sender to provide a code.
10. Proxy Server
A proxy server is a system or router that gives access to the Internet to users. Consequently, it prevents cybercriminals from infiltrating a private network. It is a server that acts as a middleman between end-users and the websites they visit online.
When a computer connects to the internet, an IP address is utilized. This is analogous to your residence's street address, directing incoming data to its destination and identifying outgoing data with a return address for other devices to validate. A proxy server is simply a computer with its IP address on the Internet.
There is more than one kind of forward HTTP proxy to select from, based on your requirements. The level of privacy they give is the key distinction between these categories.
- Transparent proxy: A transparent proxy does not provide any enhanced privacy or security. Web servers receive your true IP address and are aware of your proxy connection when you use a proxy.
- Anonymous proxies: Anonymous proxies guarantee that they will not transmit your IP address to the websites and services that you use. Websites will receive a spoofed IP address instead of your genuine one, which is why anonymous proxies are also known as distorting proxies.
- High anonymity proxies: Consider high anonymity proxies, also known as elite proxies, an upgrade from your typical anonymous proxy. The foundations are the same, but high anonymous proxies further conceal your usage of the proxy. If you use one of these, a website will be unable to identify your proxy usage.
11. VPN Gateways
In a VPN system, a VPN gateway is a type of networking equipment that links two or more devices or networks. It is intended to bridge the connection or communication between two or more distant sites, networks, or devices, or to link several VPNs.
A VPN gateway may be a router, server, firewall, or any internetworking and data transmission-capable equipment. However, a VPN gateway is often actual network equipment.
Typically, the VPN gateway is situated at the central VPN site or infrastructure. The VPN gateway is set up to allow, block, or divert VPN traffic. It provides fundamental VPN networking services like IP address assignment and administration, dynamic and static routing, and routing table maintenance.
12. Email Security Gateways
An email gateway is a type of email server that safeguards the internal email servers of an organization or user. This server functions as a gateway through which all incoming and outgoing emails must travel. A Secure Email Gateway (SEG) is hardware or piece of software used for monitoring transmitted and received emails. Messages gateway protection is intended to block spam and deliver legitimate emails. Unwanted messages include spam, phishing attempts, viruses, and false information. It is possible to examine outgoing communications to prevent sensitive material from leaving the business or to automatically encrypt emails containing sensitive data. Depending on the needs, SEG functionality can be installed as a cloud service or an on-premises appliance.
13. Content Filtering Devices
The definition of content filtering software is a program that blocks access to web material and incoming content such as email that may be deemed unsuitable, offensive, or a security risk. It is a component of a network firewall.
In today's increasingly linked, content-driven world, content filtering software solutions are essential for running any organization. Even the tiniest businesses require safe email services. Email accounts for 94% of virus execution, which is rather interesting. Therefore, no firm can afford to disregard content filtering software solutions in its infrastructure. The initial stage in the search for a content filtering system is to determine the intended use cases. Among the most frequent use cases are:
- To avoid social engineering assaults that result in data breaches and malware downloads.
- To adhere to industry-specific standards, like the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) for schools and libraries.
- Observance of business policy: To enforce corporate regulations, such as prohibiting gambling or social media usage on company property.
- To liberate the company's network of the unwanted payload by blocking streaming websites.
- Restrictions on violent and adult material to filter and block inflammatory and pornographic content.
14. Network Device Backup and Recovery
Every company relies heavily on its network to perform day-to-day operations and conduct business in the contemporary digital era. For this reason, any network outage caused by hardware failure or configuration settings can have a significant negative impact on the organization's productivity and revenue. It is essential, then, that you have robust recovery solutions that allow you to return to the Internet in the quickest time possible.
With so many unique network devices, it might be difficult to implement and undo configuration changes. Additionally, it is difficult to recover a large number of different devices fast in the case of a tragedy.
Because of these benefits, centralized backup and recovery for network devices is highly advantageous. By storing the configuration and state of network devices in a safe location, network configuration management systems automate the backup process and facilitate rollback or restore procedures.