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What is IoT (Internet of Things)?

Defining the term Internet of Things (IoT) can be somewhat difficult because it has many definitions depending on who is defining the term. Generally, IoT refers to many of the objects (consists of any hardware with Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or other RF modules that allows it to connect to the internet) that surround us will be on the network in one form or another. Also, it could be that IoT is an immaculate integration of the real and digital worlds through networked sensors, actuators, embedded hardware, appliances, cars, and software that will change the way we live, work and relate to one another. In addition, the Internet of Things enables these objects/devices to generate, share, and consume data with little or no human intervention. These items include everything from common domestic items to complex industrial instruments.

The IoT is at the heart of the 4th industrial revolution. The rise of embedded technologies brought on by the Internet of Things is hastening the convergence of operational technologies (OT), which work in real-time on physical systems like manufacturing and control systems, and information technologies (IT), which support information processing, communication, and decision-making to improve business resource management. With more than 10 billion connected IoT devices today, it is expected that this number will grow to 25 billion by 2030. Also, it is estimated that by 2025, the IoT ecosystem will create an annual economic impact of USD 2.5 trillion to USD 6.5 trillion.

What is IoT

Figure 1. What is IoT

To get a sense of how IoT works, let's use a smart home as an example. Consider a home with smart devices like a smart thermostat, several smart lighting, and smart appliances. Thanks to the IoT, anyone can control every single device connected to a network with specific commands (such as voice and gesture) that are routed through a smart sensor. Most of these devices also can transmit usage data to your smartphone through an app. People can make more educated judgments about how and when they use these gadgets thanks to the data collected by them. That information can be utilized to create a clear picture of the devices in a given area, such as water usage from a sprinkler system or electrical demand from gadgets and appliances. With analytics tools in the IoT, the devices in that environment can run autonomously with smart behavior. Of course, the Internet of Things isn't only for smart homes; IoT-connected gadgets have a variety of industrial and professional applications.

What is the History of the Internet of Things?

The internet started in the 1950s and was driven by the US military for internal communication purposes. The first package sent was between UCLA and Stanford. In the beginning, internet use was inaccessible to the public, and strictly restricted to selected governmental organizations, mainly in Europe and North America.

During a presentation in 1999, British IT pioneer Kevin Ashton coined the term "Internet of Things." He coined the phrase to connect the concept of radio frequency identification (RFID) to the then-trending issue of the Internet. He had an idea of a future in which devices were connected in much the same way that people and computers connect via the network. Now, because of enormous advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology, it's easier than ever to build a more robust IoT.

The revolution from 1G to 5G networks has been radical. The first and second-generation were mainly focused on voice and some minor text-based features and have little to nothing in common with the internet that we use today. 3rd and 4th generations on the other hand extended the internet to multimedia and reliable use on mobile devices. Smart connectivity with existing networks and context-aware computing using network resources are required for IoT. The transition toward ubiquitous information and communication networks is already visible, with the expanding ubiquity of WiFi and 4G-LTE wireless internet access. However, in order for the IoT goal to succeed, computing criteria will need to develop beyond standard mobile computing scenarios that involve smartphones and portables to include linking common existing things and embedding intelligence into our environment. In order for technology to fade from the user's consciousness, the IoT requires:

(1) a shared knowledge of the circumstances of its users and their equipment,

(2) software architectures and pervasive communication networks to process and convey the contextual information to where it is relevant, and

(3) with these three fundamental grounds in place, smart connectivity, and context-aware computation can be accomplished.

Why is IoT Important?

The IoT is important because of its capability to provide both individuals and companies with useful data and analytics. It also increases ease of use by enabling several devices to be simply controlled through smartphones or specific commands.

Over the past decade, IoT has become one of the most important technologies of the 21st century. We can now connect objects to the internet via smart devices, such as home appliances, autos, thermostats, and industrial machines. Smart devices can share and collect data with minimal human intervention using low-cost computing, the cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies. In today's hyperconnected world, digital systems can record, monitor, and change every interaction between connected devices. The real and digital worlds clash, yet they also complement one another. The key benefits of the IoT objects can be broken down into three areas :

1- Interconnectivity: This is the core pillar of the IoT. It enables seamless integration of smart devices and allows users to operate them all from a single interface. With an IoT-enabled sensor, for instance, you can check its status directly from your phone without being in the same room. Interconnectivity is also what allows your smart appliances to work and share data seamlessly with each other.

2- Communication: When it comes to IoT, communication and interconnectedness go hand in hand. Communication takes things a step farther than interconnectivity by allowing devices to communicate with and control one another. Communication takes things a step farther than interconnectivity by allowing devices to communicate with and control one another.

This inter-device communication helps businesses get ahead of potential difficulties on a commercial level. Communication between devices can tell users if a component requires maintenance before it breaks, allowing the company to service the equipment before it interrupts workflow. These devices can often pinpoint the particular section of the machine that is malfunctioning, reducing the amount of time a technician has to spend on-site locating and repairing the issue.

3- Automation: Because devices are interconnected and capable of communicating with one another, they can often be set to perform certain functions automatically. Using the smart house analogy again, automation can assist clients in finishing their morning routine. You can set your coffee maker to brew and your alarm clock to go off at the same time every morning with the right smart technology in your home, which will help you keep your schedule consistent. Automation gains considerably more clout at the corporate level. Some farmers have found ways to use the IoT to improve the efficiency of their greenhouses. Smart greenhouses can help plants grow with minimal human intervention by regulating climate, lighting, air movement, and water usage.

What is the Purpose of IoT?

The IoT is the future of the smart devices that tech companies have worked toward for decades. The premise behind the notion is that adding sensors and artificial intelligence (AI) to devices can enhance efficiency and broaden the range of services a single device can perform. While the concept of the Internet of Things has been around for a long time, it has only just become a reality thanks to recent advancements in a range of technologies.

  • Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology: IoT technology allows more manufacturers to produce economical and dependable sensors.

  • Connectivity: A slew of internet network protocols have made it simple to link sensors to the cloud and other "things" for fast data transfer.

  • Cloud computing platforms: Cloud systems are becoming more capable, allowing organizations and consumers to access infrastructure. They need to expand without having to handle everything.

  • Machine learning and analytics: Businesses can acquire insights faster and more simply thanks to developments in machine learning and analytics, as well as access to diverse and large volumes of data stored in the cloud. These technologies are fed by the data generated by IoT.

  • Conversational artificial intelligence (AI): Natural-language processing (NLP) has been brought to IoT devices (such as digital personal assistants Alexa, Cortana, and Siri) thanks to advances in artificial neural networks, making them more appealing, inexpensive, and feasible for home-usage.

How Does IoT Work?

To provide smart services to users, the IoT architecture consists of physical items that are integrated into a communication network and backed by computational equipment. the IoT architecture has are three layers:

1. Perception Layer: The IoT's physical sensors that collect and interpret data are depicted in the first layer, the Objects (devices) or Perception layer. This layer contains sensors and actuators that may query position, temperature, weight, motion, vibration, acceleration, and humidity, among other things. The perception layer must employ standardized plug-and-play procedures to configure heterogeneous objects. Through secure connections, the perception layer digitizes and sends data to the Object Abstraction layer.

2. Network Layer: This layer is where the IoT's large data is generated. Object Abstraction uses secure channels to transport data from the Objects layer to the Service Management layer. RFID, 3G, GSM, UMTS, WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy, infrared, ZigBee, and other technologies can all be used to convey data. Other functions, such as cloud computing and data management, are also performed at this tier.

3. Application Layer: Customers request services, which are provided by the application layer. The application layer, for example, can supply temperature and air humidity metrics to a customer who requests them. This layer is critical for the Internet of Things because it can provide high-quality smart services to suit customers' needs. Smart homes, smart buildings, transportation, industrial automation, and smart healthcare are just a few of the vertical areas covered by the application layer.

What Are the Benefits of the Internet of Things?

A wide range of applications is being driven by the Internet of Things' ability to supply sensor data and enable device-to-device communication. Some of the most popular applications and what they accomplish are listed below.

1- Create new efficiencies in manufacturing through machine monitoring and product-quality monitoring: Machines can be continuously monitored and evaluated to ensure they are working within approved tolerances. By monitoring items in real-time, quality flaws can also be recognized and rectified in real-time.

2- Improve the tracking and ring-fencing of physical assets: The use of IoT in connected logistics for fleet management to improve efficiency and safety is one example. They can use ring-fencing to ensure that high-value assets are safe from theft and removal.

3- Use wearables to monitor human health analytics and environmental conditions: IoT wearables enable people to better understand their health and allow physicians to remotely monitor patients. This technology also enables organizations to monitor their employees' health and safety, which is especially useful for those who work in hazardous situations.

4- Fleet management and new possibilities in existing processes: The use of IoT in integrated logistics for fleet management to improve safety and reliability is one example. Companies can utilize IoT fleet monitoring to increase efficiency by directing trucks in real-time.

5- Enable business process changes: An example of this is the use of IoT devices for connected assets to monitor the health of remote machines and trigger service calls for preventive maintenance. Remote machine monitoring is also enabling new product-as-a-service business models, in which customers pay to utilize a thing rather than buy it.

What Industries Can Benefit from IoT?

The economic growth of IoT-based services is also considerable for businesses. Healthcare and manufacturing applications are also projected to form an economic impact.

1. Retail

Retailers may use IoT applications to manage inventory, improve customer experience, optimize the supply chain, and cut expenses. Smart shelves with weight sensors, for example, can collect RFID-based data and transfer it to an IoT platform to automatically check inventory and give warnings when things are running short. Customers can receive tailored discounts and promotions via beacons, making for a more engaging experience.

2. Public Sector

In the public sector and other service-related sectors, the advantages of IoT are similarly extensive. Government-owned utilities, for example, can utilize IoT-based applications to alert their customers of large-scale outages as well as minor interruptions in water, power, or sewer service. IoT apps can collect data on the breadth of an outage and dispatch services to help utilities recover more rapidly from disruptions.

3. Healthcare

IoT asset monitoring serves the healthcare industry in a variety of ways. Doctors, nurses, and orderlies commonly need to know where wheelchairs and other patient-assistance devices are kept. When IoT sensors are installed on wheelchairs, they may be tracked using an IoT-based monitoring app. As a result, it's simple to keep track of who's where. Many hospital assets can be tracked in this way to ensure proper use and financial accounting for each department's physical assets.

4. Automotive

IoT applications have the potential to provide major benefits to the automobile industry. Sensors can detect impending equipment failure in vehicles currently on the road and provide the driver with details and advice, in addition to the benefits of using IoT on production lines. Thanks to aggregated data generated by IoT-based applications, automotive manufacturers and suppliers may learn more about how to keep autos running and car owners informed.

5. Manufacturing

Manufacturers can gain a competitive advantage by implementing production-line monitoring, which allows for proactive maintenance of equipment when sensors indicate impending failure. When production output is harmed, sensors can detect it. Manufacturers can swiftly examine equipment for accuracy or remove it from production until it is fixed with the help of sensor alerts. Companies can lower operational costs, increase uptime, and improve asset performance management as a result of this.

6. General Safety Across All Industries

IoT can be utilized to improve worker safety in addition to tracking physical assets. Employees in hazardous areas, such as mines, oil and gas fields, chemical and power plants, need to be aware of the possibility of a hazardous incident affecting them. When they are connected to IoT sensor-based systems, individuals can be alerted of impending accidents and saved as quickly as feasible. IoT applications are also used in wearables that monitor human health and environmental data. Wearables that monitor human health and environmental parameters also leverage IoT applications. Not only do these types of applications help people better understand their health, but they also permit physicians to monitor patients remotely.

7. Energy

For the past 100 years, traditional energy grid systems have been powering companies and countries, but with the massive increase in demand for electrical power, the domain of IoT has emerged as the pioneering technology that is driving smart grid system innovations. Traditional grid operations relied on simple analog meters to track monthly power flows to each household or industry, but with the advancement of intelligent and autonomous systems, modern smart grids now provide solutions that allow for comprehensive energy distribution oversight, which benefits both consumers and producers. Concerning power producers, these smart grid solutions allow accurate monitoring of energy demands and supplies which allows them to effectively control pricing as well as load balancing to sustain the healthy functioning of the grid.

8. Finance

From counterparty risk and online bill payment to things that used to be tangible but are increasingly not, such as stock certificates and even money itself, financial services have long dealt in the intangible.

According to Deloitte Center for Financial Services research, the financial services industry has both near- and long-term chances to profit from IoT. By collecting and transmitting data, the Internet of Things saves financial institutions a lot of time and money. With the usage of IoT, financial organizations can improve client satisfaction while also detecting fraudulent actions more effectively. In a variety of ways, it can reduce risk and improve the overall security of the banking system.

9. Transportation and Logistics

Transportation and logistical operations benefit from a variety of IoT applications. Thanks to IoT sensor data, vehicles for both transportation and logistics can be routed based on weather conditions and vehicle/driver ability. Sensors for track-and-trace and temperature-control monitoring could be built within the inventory itself. Temperature-sensitive inventory is common in the food and beverage, floral, and pharmaceutical industries, and IoT monitoring apps that provide alerts when temperatures rise or fall to a level that threatens the product would be quite beneficial.

What is Device Management in IoT?

IoT devices can be classified into two major categories:

  • resource-constrained and
  • resource-rich devices.

Devices with rich resources are those with the hardware and software to support the TCP/IP protocol suite. IoT applications are built on top of a variety of application-level protocols and frameworks, including REST, CoAP, MQTT, MQTT-SN, AMQP, and others, on devices that support the TCP/IP protocol suite. Devices that do not have the needed resources to implement TCP/IP, on the other hand, cannot readily interoperate with resource-rich devices that support the TCP/IP suite.

What is an IoT Embedded System?

The IoT embedded devices are the objects that build the unique computing system. An embedded system is a combination of hardware and software designed for a specific function. In that function, the embedded systems should be adaptable (configurable or fixed). Embedded systems include industrial machines, agricultural and processing instruments, automobiles, household products, consumer electronics, cameras, medical equipment, smartwatches, vending machines, airplanes, and toys, as well as mobile devices.

What is a Smart Object in IoT?

The smart object is the fundamental element of IoT hardware. This smart object is composed of hardware sensors or actuators that allow the device to interface with the physical world around it. Mobile phones, refrigerators, washing machines, wearables, medical equipment, and jet engines are all examples of smart devices (objects). Basically, in the IoT, objects use the web and unique identifiers such as RFID tags or processors to exist as part of the internet. Like any other modern computer, devices are controlled by operating systems with varying degrees of sophistication and integrate with the physical interface layer and the network/transport layers using driver software. Specific hardware may be implemented on a device that reduces the need for OS or driver overhead. However, it can generally be assumed that both of these software is needed to enhance reliability and compatibility through updates except in particular instances.

What is Cloud IoT Core?

Cloud Computing (CC) offers a new management mechanism for big data that enables the processing of data and the extraction of valuable knowledge from it. In most cases, an IoT system follows the Cloud-centric Internet of Things (CIoT) design, in which real devices are represented as Web resources that are managed by servers on the global Internet. In general, an IoT system consists of three major technologies:

  • Embedded Systems (smart objects): Embedded systems provide intelligence to front-end devices.
  • Middleware: Middleware interconnects heterogeneous embedded systems of front-end devices to the cloud.
  • Cloud Services: They provide comprehensive storage, processing, and management mechanisms.

Because of the following issues, implementing CC for IoT is not a straightforward task:

  • Synchronization: Because services are developed on top of numerous cloud platforms, synchronization between different cloud suppliers makes providing real-time services difficult.
  • Standardization: Standardizing CC also presents a significant challenge for IoT cloud-based services due to having to interoperate with the various vendors.
  • Balancing: Due to infrastructure differences, finding a balance between standard cloud service settings and IoT requirements is difficult.
  • Reliability: The security of IoT cloud-based services presents another challenge due to the differences in the security mechanisms between the IoT devices and the cloud platforms.
  • Management: Managing CC and IoT systems is also a challenging factor because both have different resources and components.
  • Enhancement: Validating IoT cloud-based services is vital to ensure that clients receive high-quality services that satisfy their expectations. Currently, the biggest changes we as end customers notice are speed increases due to improved infrastructure.

What is 5G IoT?

Currently, the main changes that we as end-users experience are speed-ups through better infrastructure. But industry leaders are working on the next big thing: the 5th generation of the internet. 4G and all its features will stay around for a long time and it seems like 5G will be more of an additional feature rather than a replacement.

Most people think that 5G simply means that the internet will get even faster but 5Gs main objective is to support IoT. As explained above, IoT means that millions and billions of connected devices can share information. Because one of 5G's top priorities is to enable IoT, the most important feature will be lower latency, which is critical for activities that require a minimal delay. If a car communicates with the environment to make decisions the data must be exchanged without any delay, because that could be fatal. Another big goal of 5G is to make the internet more energy efficient and make computing power more accessible through connecting devices.

What are the Challenges of IoT?

Assessing the performance of IoT services is a key challenge. Furthermore;

  • Availability: Availability of the IoT must be realized in the hardware and software levels to provide anywhere and anytime services for customers. Availability of software refers to the ability of the IoT applications to provide services for everyone at different places simultaneously. Hardware refers to a device's capacity to be compatible with IoT functionalities and protocols at all times.

  • Reliability: Reliability refers to the proper working of the system based on its specification. The goal of reliability is to improve IoT service delivery success rates. It has a close relationship with availability as by reliability, we guarantee the availability of information and services over time. When it comes to the field of emergency response applications, reliability is even more important and has stricter standards. In these systems, the critical part is the communication network which must be resilient to failures to realize reliable information distribution. Reliability must be implemented in software and hardware throughout all the IoT layers. To have an efficient IoT, the underlying communication must be trustworthy, because, for example, an unreliable perception can lead to long delays, data loss, and ultimately incorrect decisions, all of which can lead to tragic scenarios and make the IoT less dependable.

  • Mobility: Most of the services are expected to be delivered to mobile users therefore, mobility is another issue for IoT implementation. One of the key tenets of the Internet of Things is to keep people connected to their desired services when they are on the move. When mobile devices move from one gateway to another, they may experience service interruptions.

  • Performance: Since the performance of IoT components depends on the underlying technology, computing the performance of IoT services is a challenge. To meet the expectations of customers, the IoT, like other systems, must continue to expand and improve its services. To deliver the greatest possible performance at an affordable price for clients, IoT devices must be monitored and assessed. Processing speed, connection speed, device form size, and cost are all metrics that can be used to evaluate IoT performance.

  • Management: The connection of billions or trillions of smart devices presents service providers with daunting issues to manage the Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) aspects of these devices. This management effort necessitates the development of new lightweight management protocols to handle the potential management nightmare that will potentially stem from the deployment of the IoT in the coming years. Managing IoT devices and applications can be an effective factor for growing IoT deployments.

  • Scalability: The capacity to add new devices, services, and functions for clients without compromising the quality of existing offerings is referred to as IoT scalability. It's not easy to add new operations and support new devices, especially when there are so many different hardware platforms and communication protocols to contend with. To enable extensible services and operations, IoT applications must be built from the ground up.

  • Interoperability: Due to the necessity to handle a huge number of heterogeneous things that belong to multiple platforms, end-to-end interoperability is another problem for the IoT. Interoperability should be considered by both application developers and IoT device manufacturers to ensure the delivery of services for all customers regardless of the specifications of the hardware platform that they use.

  • Security and Privacy: Security presents a significant challenge for IoT implementations due to the lack of common standards and architecture for IoT security. In heterogeneous networks as in the case of the IoT, it is not easy to guarantee the security and privacy of users. The core functionality of the IoT is based on the exchange of information between billions or even trillions of Internet connection objects. One open problem in IoT security that has not been considered in the standards is the distribution of the keys amongst devices. On the other hand, privacy issues and profile access operations between IoT devices without interference are extremely critical. To avoid losing or compromising privacy, however, data exchanges must be secured. The increased number of smart things around us with sensitive data necessitates a transparent and easy access control management in such a way that for example one vendor can just read the data while another is allowed to control the device.

There is still a long way to go because businesses and other stakeholders must agree on standards and data sharing agreements, which is a challenging undertaking given the diversity of interests and concerns. Who is going to own the data? Which data can, should, or must be shared? Which protocols are to be used? We are certain that these issues will be rectified, but it will take time. Until then, we'll have to make do with the internet we have and the limited IoT (linked houses, smarter cars, and medical technologies).

What is IoT Attack?

Generally, IoT devices work in diverse surroundings to accomplish different goals. Their functioning, on the other hand, must meet a comprehensive security need in both the cyber and physical realms. IoT systems are complex and contain multidisciplinary arrangements. Therefore, maintaining the security requirement with the wide-scale attack surface of the IoT system is challenging. To satisfy the desired security requirement, the solution should include holistic considerations. IoT devices, on the other hand, are typically used in an unattended setting. Consequently, an intruder may physically access these devices. Certain devices also store data that can be accessed quickly. Data can be captured and shared even if you aren't actively using your device. Security cameras, for example, can be accessed without your knowledge, allowing individuals with shady motives to look into your home and life whenever they want.

Is IoT Secure?

Due to the sensitivity of consumers' privacy, security and privacy play a crucial role in all markets throughout the world. The requirements for securing IoT devices have become complex because several technologies, from physical devices and wireless transmission to mobile and cloud architectures, need to be secured and combined with other technologies.

Data Security is an umbrella term for the processes and methodologies used to protect the information, data, and systems. Protecting data involves keeping it safe from unwanted access, use, disclosure, disturbance, alteration, or destruction. There are three fundamental elements to consider when it comes to information security. Confidentiality, availability, and integrity are three of them.

IoT devices are typically connected via wireless networks, where eavesdropping by an intruder could expose private information via the communication channel. Because of their limited compute and power resources, IoT devices are unable to handle complicated security systems. As a result, protecting the IoT system is a difficult and time-consuming task. Because the major goal of the IoT system is for it to be accessible to anybody, everywhere, and at any time, attack vectors and surfaces become available to attackers.

How is IoT Security Provided?

The advancement in Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) has allowed for the development of various powerful analytical methods that can be used to enhance IoT security.

Learning algorithms have been widely adopted in many real-world applications because of their unique nature of solving problems. Learning algorithms are used to build machines that progress automatically as they gain experience. Recently, learning algorithms have been widely applied in practice. The creation of new algorithms, as well as the availability of massive data and the rise of low-computation-cost algorithms, have fueled the present advancement of learning algorithms. ML and DL have come a long way in the last few years, going from a laboratory curiosity to practical machinery with a wide range of applications.

Learning algorithms, in general, strive to enhance performance in completing a task through training and learning from experience. For instance, in learning intrusion detection, the task is to classify system behavior as normal or abnormal. A performance improvement can be achieved by improving classification accuracy, and the experiences from which the algorithms learn are a collection of normal system behavior.

What is the Difference Between Cloud Computing and IoT?

Cloud computing is a broad word that refers to a new type of internet-based computing that involves a collection of connected and networked devices, software, and internet infrastructure. Clients can get hardware, software, and networking services by using the internet for communication and transportation.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States defines cloud computing as an access paradigm to a shared configurable network of computing sources such as networks, servers, warehouses, applications, and services. Individuals and businesses can employ third-party software and hardware components via cloud services. Researchers and organizations may access and maintain a large number of resources remotely, reliably, and at a cheap cost thanks to cloud computing.

The IoT employs a large number of embedded devices, like sensors and actuators that generate big data which in turn requires complex computations to extract knowledge. As a result, the cloud's storage and processing resources are the greatest options for the IoT to store and analyze massive data. In the following subsections, we discuss the relationship between the IoT and big data analytics and cloud computing.

What is the main Difference Between IoT and IIoT?

While most of the IoT systems developed until now have been consumer-centric, the disruptive nature of this technology has enabled the adoption of this technology in a large industrial product range thus leading to the development of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technology.

The implementation of IoT technology in industrial settings, especially in terms of instrumentation and control of sensors and equipment that use cloud technologies, is referred to as IIoT. Machine-to-machine communication (M2M) has recently been employed in industries to achieve wireless automation and control. However, with the rise of cloud and related technologies (such as analytics and machine learning), businesses can attain a new level of automation and, with it, new income and business models. The IIoT, often known as Industry 4.0, is the fourth phase of the industrial revolution. The following are some common uses for IIoT:

  • Smart manufacturing
  • Connected assets and preventive and predictive maintenance
  • Smart power grids
  • Smart cities
  • Connected logistics
  • Smart digital supply chains

How is IoT Changing the World?

"If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things, using data they gathered without any help from us, we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss, and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing, or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best." by Kevin Ashton.

IoT is reinventing many objects by enabling connected them. With IoT, owners can operate their appliances remotely. The IoT provides a lot of convenience and comfort in modern, fast-paced living. One cannot imagine going on a holiday without the internet and navigation. Let's have a look at how this incredible breakthrough affects our lives daily.

A new value is created across numerous industries in the Networked Society by linking things and providing "smartness" to them. As more things become linked, new opportunities emerge for service providers, industries, communities, and businesses to offer innovative solutions that change the world we live in and the way we do business.

A slew of new technologies is surfacing that provide new value and possibilities for linking the next big "thing" to a new generation of analytics and applications.