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7 Types of Routing Protocols

Routing is the process of moving information from a source to a destination across the internetwork. Typically, at least one intermediary node is encountered along the path. Routing takes place at Layer 3 (the network layer) of the OSI model. Typically, networks employ a combination of static and dynamic routing. Static routing is preferable for small networks, whereas dynamic routing is ideal for large networks.

Routing protocols are mechanisms for exchanging routing information between routers to make routing decisions. Routing protocols can facilitate effective and efficient communication between computer networks. Regardless of the scale of the network, these protocols facilitate the secure delivery of data to its destination. Understanding the various categories and types helps determine which routing method will best meet your goals.

Depending on their properties, routing protocols can be categorized into distinct classes. In particular, routing protocols can be categorized according to their:

  • Behavior: Classful (legacy) or classless protocol.
  • Purpose: Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) or Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).
  • Operation: Path-vector protocol, distance vector protocol, and link-state protocol.

IPv4 routing protocols are categorized as follows:

  • RIPv1 (legacy): IGP, distance vector, classful protocol
  • RIPv2: IGP, distance vector, classless protocol
  • BGP: EGP, classless path-vector protocol
  • OSPF: IGP, link-state, classless protocol
  • IGRP: IGRP (legacy) is Cisco's IGP, distance vector, classy protocol (deprecated from 12.2 IOS and later)
  • EIGRP: IGP, distance vector, classless protocol.
  • EGP
  • IS-IS: Internet Protocol, link-state, classless

This article describes the seven dynamic routing protocol types.

1. Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

The Routing Information System (RIP) was first defined in RFC 1058 as a first-generation routing protocol for IPv4. RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol that uses the metric hop count. RIP is straightforward to configure, making it an excellent option for small networks.

RIPv1 possesses the following qualities:

  • The number of hops is utilized as the path selection metric.
  • Every 30 seconds, routing updates are transmitted (255.255.255.255).
  • Greater than 15 hops is considered infinite (too far). This 15th hop router would not transmit the routing update to the following router.

In 1993, RIPv1 evolved into RIP version 2, a classless routing protocol (RIPv2). RIPv2 brought the subsequent enhancements:

  • Security: It includes an authentication mechanism for securing routing table update communications between neighbors.
  • Classless routing protocol support: It supports VLSM and CIDR because routing updates include the subnet mask.
  • Improved efficiency: It forwards updates to the multicast address 224.0.0.9 rather than the broadcast address 255.255.255.255.
  • Reduced routing entries: Manual route summarization on any interface is supported.

RIP updates are contained in a UDP segment with both the source and destination ports set to UDP port 520.

The IPv6-enabled version of RIP was introduced in 1997. RIPng is an extension of RIPv2 restricted to 15 hops, the administrative distance is 120. This hop count limitation renders RIP unsuitable for larger networks.

2. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most prevalent link-state routing protocol. The OSPF Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) designed it. OSPF development began in 1987, and there are currently two active versions:

  • OSPFv2: OSPF for IPv4 networks (RFC 1247 and RFC 2328)
  • OSPFv3: OSPFv3 is the IPv6 version of OSPF (RFC 2740)

OSPFv3 now supports both IPv4 and IPv6 thanks to the Address Families functionality.

OSPF implements the link state routing algorithm and is utilized in medium- to large-sized networks. OSPF is an intradomain routing protocol that only operates within a specific routing domain. OSPF is also a hierarchical routing protocol that may be used in a single autonomous system. OSPF emerged from the intermediate-system-to-system (IS-IS) routing protocol of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. OSPF enables multipath routing and uses one or more routing metrics, including dependability, bandwidth, latency, load, and maximum transmission unit (MTU). If OSPF utilizes many metrics, it also allows type-of-service (TOS) requests for traffic differentiation.

OSPF, is a link-state, interior gateway, and classless protocol that uses the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to ensure efficient data transmission. Internally, this type maintains numerous databases containing topology tables and network-wide information. Typically, the data is derived from link state advertising transmitted by individual routers. The advertising, which resembles reports, provides thorough details of the path's length and the resources that may be necessary.

OSPF utilizes the Dijkstra algorithm to recalculate paths when topology changes occur. It also employs authentication procedures to maintain the security of its data throughout network modifications and intrusions. Due to its scalability, OSPF may be advantageous for both small and large network enterprises.

4. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

In 1984, Cisco created the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) to address issues with RIP in large networks. IGRP is a distance vector protocol, however, it employs several routing metrics (not just hop count) to compute the destination's distance. Hold-downs, split horizons, and poison-reverse updates are IGRP features aimed at improving network stability. IGRP should only be utilized if your current environment consists solely of IGRP and you do not wish to add another routing protocol.

The IGRP protocol offers the following routing goals:

  • The capacity to manage many "types of services" with a single set of data
  • Routing loop prevention
  • Routing stability, even in extremely large or complex networks
  • Low overhead, indicating that IGRP should not consume more bandwidth than it needs for its own operation
  • Rapid reaction to varying network structure
  • Split traffic along parallel routes when their desirability is equal.
  • Consideration of error rates and traffic levels on various paths

IGRP is a distance-vector protocol in which routers (commonly referred to as gateways) only exchange routing information with neighboring routers. IGRP outperforms RIP in terms of metrics. It utilizes many of RIP's fundamental functionalities but increases the maximum number of hops supported to 100. Consequently, it may function better on larger networks. IGRP compares network parameters such as capacity, dependability, and load to function. This type automatically updates when modifications, such as route modifications, occur. This aids in the prevention of routing loops, which are faults that result in an infinite loop of data transfer. The new IGRP measures include the following:

  • Bandwidth of the path section with the smallest bandwidth. The transmission rate in bits per second.
  • Topological delay time. The time it would take for a packet to reach its destination if the network were not crowded. If there is network traffic on the network, you may experience additional delays.
  • Dependability of the route. Indicates the path's reliability based on the number of packets that really arrive at the destination, relative to the total number of packets transmitted.
  • Path occupancy of the channel. Indicates the percentage of bandwidth currently in use. This value will fluctuate frequently as network traffic fluctuates.

Using a complex algorithm, IGRP evaluates these parameters and determines the optimal route, as represented by the smallest metric value.

Hold-downs, Split horizons, and Poison-reverse updates are further significant stability characteristics of IGRP.

  • Hold-downs: Used to prevent a regular update message from reestablishing a route that may have previously become invalid. When a network link fails, surrounding routers will detect the absence of regularly scheduled updates and determine that the link is no longer operational. The network will subsequently begin to propagate messages informing users that this router is not operating. If this convergence takes too long, another router on the network may indicate that this router is still operating normally. This gadget may be broadcasting inaccurate route information. A hold-down instructs the network's routers to delay for a period of time any modifications that could disrupt the routes. The hold-down duration is calculated to be only marginally longer than the time required to update the entire network with a route change.
  • Split horizons: Used to prevent routing loops from occurring between two routers. It is never advantageous to relay route information back in the direction from whence a packet was sent.
  • Poison-reverse updates: Used to reduce loops between many routers. When the metric rises dramatically, it may suggest a routing loop. The router is subsequently placed on hold-down by sending it a poison-reverse update.

Utilizing timers and variables containing time intervals is another characteristic of IGRP's stability. Included among the timers are as follows:

  • Update Timer: The update timer specifies how frequently update messages are transmitted. The IGRP default update interval is 90 seconds.
  • Invalid Timer: The invalid timer specifies how long a router will wait before declaring a route invalid if it is not receiving routing update messages. The default value for the IGRP invalid timer is three times the update timer.
  • Hold-time Period: The hold-time period (also known as the hold-down period) will indicate the duration of the hold-down period. The default hold-time for IGRP is three times the update interval plus ten seconds.
  • Flush Timer: The flush timer specifies the amount of time that must elapse before a route is removed from a routing database. The default value of the IGRP flush timer is seven times the update interval.
  • Sleep Timer: The sleep timer specifies how long update messages will be delayed. The sleep value should be less than the update timer; otherwise, the routing tables will never be synchronized.

6. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

EIGRP, or Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, is a distance vector routing protocol used in IP, AppleTalk, and NetWare networks. EIGRP is a proprietary Cisco protocol that was developed to succeed the earlier IGRP protocol in 1992. Similar to RIPv2, EIGRP added support for VLSM and CIDR. EIGRP enhances productivity, lowers routing changes, and facilitates secure message exchange.

EIGRP also presented the following features:

  • Rapid convergence: In the majority of instances, it is the quickest IGP to converge since it maintains other pathways, allowing for nearly instantaneous convergence. If a primary route fails, the router might use an alternate route. The changeover to the alternate route is instantaneous and requires no interaction with other routers.
  • Bounded triggered updates: This type of update does not transmit frequent updates. Only updates to the routing table are propagated whenever a change occurs. This decreases the network load imposed by the routing protocol. Bound triggered updates allow EIGRP to only deliver updates to neighbors that require them. It uses less bandwidth, particularly in big networks with several routes.
  • Management of the topology table: Maintains in a topology table all routes received from neighbors, not only the optimal ones. DUAL can inject backup routes into the EIGRP topology table.
  • Hello keepalive mechanism: A periodic exchange of a short Hello message is used to maintain adjacencies between routers. This results in a minimal utilization of network resources during regular operation, as opposed to frequent updates.
  • Multiple network layer protocol support: EIGRP is the only protocol that supports protocols other than IPv4 and IPv6, including legacy IPX and AppleTalk, because it employs Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM).

EIGRP possesses a variety of characteristics that make it an effective, intelligent, and potent routing protocol, such as the Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) and a Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). To accelerate the convergence process, routes are adjusted. to improve the efficiency of packet transmissions. The downside of EIGRP is that it is a Cisco-proprietary protocol. Only Cisco routers will be able to interact via EIGRP if your network has routers from multiple suppliers. Non-Cisco routers will be unable to use or understand EIGRP.

5. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) was a routing protocol used to connect autonomous systems on the Internet from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s when it was replaced by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). EGP was created by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman in the early 1980s. It was first mentioned in RFC 827 and stated formally in RFC 904. RFC 1772 outlined an EGP to BGP migration path. EGP does not utilize routing metrics; instead, it merely tracks which networks are currently accessible via a given router.

Included in the routing table for the EGP protocol are:

  • Network addresses of nearby devices
  • Route costs
  • Identified routers

EGP maintains network databases close to one another to route the various paths data may travel to reach its destination. The databases then distribute the information to the connected routers so that all routers' tables are current. The updated routing tables can assist in determining the optimal data route.

This protocol has gone out of favor since it cannot operate in multipath networking situations. The EGP protocol functions by maintaining a database of neighboring networks and the possible routing pathways to reach them. These route details are transmitted to connected routers. Once it comes, the devices can update their routing tables and select network paths based on more accurate information.

6. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

BGP is an alternative exterior gateway protocol that was created to replace EGP. BGP employs the optimal path selection technique for data package transfers, making it a distance vector protocol. To automatically find the optimal route, BGP refers to the following variables:

  • Adjacent IP addresses
  • Router designation
  • Path distance
  • Origin type

The BGP Best Path Selection Algorithm is utilized to determine the optimal paths for data packet transfers. If no special parameters have been configured, BGP will select routes with the shortest path to the destination.

BGP enables administrators to modify transfer routes based on their requirements and provides extensive security measures to ensure that only authorized routers can exchange data and information. The algorithm for selecting the optimal route path can be modified by modifying the BGP cost community attribute. BGP is able to make routing decisions based on factors including weight, local preference, locally generated, AS Path length, origin type, multi-exit discriminator, eBGP over iBGP, IGP metric, router ID, cluster list, and neighbor IP address.

BGP only transmits updated routing table data when a change occurs. Therefore, there is no auto-discovery of topology changes, and the user must manually set up BGP. Regarding security, the BGP protocol can be verified so that only authorized routers can exchange data.

BGP was chosen over OSPF because BGP allows device designers and owners greater flexibility and control than OSPF. BGP processes include options for which routes should be broadcast and which alerts the device will accept. It provides extra options for route choosing. This allows us greater flexibility to avoid overloading specific lines that OSPF would automatically presume to be the fastest path.

7. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) designed IS-IS, which is documented in ISO 10589. The original version of this link-state routing protocol, known as DECnet Phase V, was created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Radia Perlman was the IS-IS routing protocol's principal designer.

IS-IS was originally built for the OSI protocol suite and not TCP/IP. Later, Integrated IS-IS or Dual IS-IS added IP network capability. IS-IS was formerly known as the routing protocol used mostly by ISPs and carriers, although enterprise networks are increasingly adopting it.

IS-IS protocol employs a modified form of the Dijkstra algorithm. Typically, the protocol groups routers together to build bigger domains and connects routers for data transport. IS-IS employs these two network types frequently:

  • Network Service Access Point (NSAP): Similar to an IP address, a network service access point (NSAP) identifies a service access point in systems that employ the open system interconnection (OSI) concept.
  • Network Entity Title(NET): This facilitates the identification of specific network routers within bigger computer networks.

What is a Routing Protocol?

A protocol that is used for identifying or publicizing network paths is referred to as a "routing protocol." A routing protocol specifies how routers exchange information that enables them to pick routes between network nodes. Routers direct Internet traffic so that data packets are sent from router to router through the Internet's networks until they reach their destination machine. Algorithms governing routing determine the precise route chosen. Each router is only aware of networks that are physically connected to it. A routing protocol distributes this information initially with its close neighbors and later with the rest of the network. Thus, routers obtain information about the network topology. A routing protocol enables the network to dynamically adapt to changing conditions; without it, all routing decisions must be made statically in advance. Thanks to the capacity of routing protocols to dynamically adapt to changing conditions, the Internet offers fault tolerance and high availability.

Routers utilize dynamic routing protocols to allow the transmission of routing information between routers. The objective of dynamic routing protocols comprises the discovery of remote networks, the maintenance of up-to-date routing information, the selection of the optimal way to destination networks, and the capacity to discover a new optimal path if the present path is no longer available. While dynamic routing protocols require less administrative overhead than static routing, they nonetheless demand a portion of a router's resources, including CPU time and network link bandwidth, for protocol execution.

The discovery of remote networks and the maintenance of reliable network information are the responsibilities of routing protocols. When there is a change in topology, routing protocols notify the entire routing domain. Convergence is the process of bringing all routing tables to a consistent state when all routers in the same routing domain or area have complete and accurate network information. Certain routing protocols converge more quickly than others.

Classifications for routing protocols include classful or classless, distance vector or link-state, and Interior Gateway Protocol or Exterior Gateway Protocol.

Distance vector protocols utilize routers as "sign posts" on the way to the final destination. The only information a router has about a distant network is the distance or metric required to reach it, as well as the way or interface used to reach it. Distance vector routing techniques lack a true network topology diagram.

By collecting data from all of the other routers, a router configured with a link-state routing protocol is able to construct a comprehensive network topology by collecting data from all of the other routers.

Routing protocols use metrics to identify the optimal or shortest path to a destination network. Various routing protocols may have distinct metrics. Generally, a lower metric indicates a superior path. Hops, bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load can be used to determine a metric's value.

Multiple routes to the same network may be learned by routers via both static and dynamic routing protocols. When multiple routing sources provide information on a target network, routers use the administrative distance value to select which source to use. Along with static routes and directly connected networks, each dynamic routing protocol has a distinct administrative value. The less administrative value a route source has, the more desired it is. Directly connected networks are always preferable over static and dynamic routing methods.

Among the objectives of dynamic routing protocols are as follows:

  • Maintaining current route information
  • Discovering distant networks
  • Locating a new optimal path if the present one is no longer accessible
  • Determining the optimal route to destination networks

The principal components of dynamic routing protocols are listed below:

  • Algorithm: An algorithm is a finite list of steps that are utilized to complete a task. Routing protocols utilize algorithms to facilitate routing information and to determine the optimal path.
  • Routing Protocol Messages: Messages are used by routing protocols to discover neighboring routers, communicate routing information, and conduct other network-related duties, such as learning and maintaining accurate network information.
  • Data Structures: Routing protocols generally utilize tables or databases to perform their tasks. This data is maintained in RAM.

In general, the following describes the operations of a dynamic routing protocol:

  1. The router transmits and receives routing messages on its interfaces.
  2. The router exchanges routing messages and routing data with other routers employing the same routing protocol.
  3. Routers share routing information to gain knowledge of distant networks.
  4. When a router detects a change in topology, the routing protocol might broadcast this information to other routers.

Dynamic routing protocols are more expensive in terms of CPU and bandwidth usage and less secure as compared to default and static routing.

FeaturesRIP V1RIP V2IGRPOSPFEIGRP
Classful/ClasslessClassfulClasslessClassfulClasslessClassless
MetricHopHopComposite Bandwidth, DelayBandwidthComposite, Bandwidth, Delay
Periodic30 seconds30 seconds90 secondsNone30 seconds
Advertising Address255.255.255.255.255223.0.0.9255.255.255.255.255224.0.0.5 224.0.0.6224.0.0.10
CategoryDistance VectorDistance VectorDistance VectorLink StateHybrid
Default Distance120120200110170

Table 1. Features of Dynamic Routing Protocols

The Routing Protocols Timeline is given below:

  • 1982 - EGP
  • 1985 - IGRP
  • 1988 - RIPv1
  • 1990 - IS-IS
  • 1991 - OSPFv2
  • 1992 - EIGRP
  • 1994 - RIPv2
  • 1995 - BGP
  • 1997 - RIPng
  • 1999 - BGPv6 and OSPFv3
  • 2000 - IS-ISv6

What is a Protocol in Networking?

A network protocol is an agreed collection of rules that govern the transmission of data between devices on the same network. A network protocol enables connected devices to communicate despite internal processes, structure, or design variances. Network protocols play a crucial part in current digital communications because they make it possible to communicate with people all over the world.

The Internet protocols are the most widely used open-system (nonproprietary) protocol suite in the world because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks and are suitable for both LAN and WAN communications. The two most well-known Internet protocols are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). The Internet protocols are a suite of communication protocols, of which the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) are the best. In addition to lower-layer protocols (such as TCP and IP), the Internet protocol suite also specifies typical applications such as electronic mail, terminal emulation, and file transfer.

What Is the Importance of Routing Protocols?

The data networks we use to learn, play and work in our daily lives ranging from small, local networks to enormous, global networks. Multiple routers and switches may serve the data connectivity needs of hundreds or thousands of PCs within an enterprise.

Routing protocols enable routers to dynamically share information about external networks and add it to their routing tables. Routers forward packets using the routing table's information. The router can discover routes to faraway networks in two ways: statically and dynamically. The optimal route to each network is determined by routing protocols.

In a big network consisting of several networks and subnets, designing and maintaining static routes between these networks takes a substantial amount of administrative and operational overhead. This operational burden is particularly burdensome when network changes occur, such as a downlink or the implementation of a new subnet. Implementing dynamic routing protocols can lighten the load of configuration and maintenance duties and provide scalability to the network.

A fundamental advantage of dynamic routing protocols is that routers share routing information whenever there is a change in network topology. This exchange enables routers to automatically discover new networks and find alternate routes in the event of a network link loss.

Dynamic routing protocols demand less administrative work than static routing. However, dynamic routing protocols require a portion of a router's resources, including CPU time and network link bandwidth, for protocol execution. Despite the advantages of dynamic routing, there is still a role for static routing. There are instances where static routing is preferable and others when dynamic routing is preferable. In networks with a modest degree of complexity, both static and dynamic routing may be established.

In summary, routing protocols are important technologies in the communication world because of the following:

  • A rapid convergence
  • Easy to configure
  • Permits optimal route selection
  • Minimize update traffic
  • Provides for loop-free routing
  • Adapts to alterations
  • Supports vary in length
  • Compatible with established hosts and routers
  • Scales to a substantial size

What are the IGP and EGP Routing Protocols?

An autonomous system (AS) is a collection of routers administered by a single entity, such as a business or organization. An AS may also be referred to as a route domain. An AS often consists of a company's internal network and an ISP's network.

Due to the fact that the Internet is based on the AS idea, two types of routing protocols are required:

  • Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP): These are protocols used for routing within an AS. This is also known as the intra-AS route. Internal networks of businesses, organizations and even service providers use an IGP. RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, and IS-IS are IGPs.
  • Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP): Used for routing between autonomous systems. This is also known as the inter-AS route. Using an EGP, service providers and huge corporations can interconnect. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the Internet's official routing protocol and the only EGP that is currently operational. Since BGP is the sole available EGP, the word EGP is rarely used; instead, engineers typically refer to BGP.

What are Routing Protocol Metrics?

There are instances in which a routing protocol discovers many routes to the same destination. For the routing protocol to select the optimal path, it must be able to analyze and differentiate amongst the available paths. This is achieved with the use of routing metrics.

A metric is a quantitative value assigned to different routes by the routing protocol based on the usefulness of that route. In instances where numerous paths exist to the same remote network, routing metrics are used to calculate the "cost" of a path from source to destination. Routing protocols find the optimal path based on the least expensive route.

Various routing protocols employ distinct metrics. One routing protocol's metric cannot be compared to the metric of another routing protocol. Two distinct routing protocols may select distinct routes to the same destination.

Below are the most typical metric values:

  • Reliability: Reliability is a metric factor that may be given a constant value. Its value is dynamically measured and is dependent on the network links. Some networks experience outages more frequently than others. Some network links are easier to repair than others after a network breakdown. Any dependability element may be considered when assigning reliability ratings, which are typically issued by the system administrator as numeric values.
  • Delay: The amount of time a router needs to process, queue, and transmit a datagram to an interface. This measure is used by the protocols to determine the delay values for all links along the end-to-end path. The route with the lowest delay value will be considered the optimal route.
  • Hop count: Hop count is a measure that specifies the number of internetworking devices, such as a router, through which a packet must pass in order to go from source to destination. If the hop is considered a major metric value by the routing protocol, then the path with the fewest hops will be deemed the optimal way from source to destination.
  • Load: Load is the degree to which a network resource, such as a router or network link, is utilized. A load can be determined in numerous ways, including CPU use and packets processed per second. If the volume of traffic increases, so will the load value. The load value adapts to the fluctuating volume of traffic.
  • Bandwidth: The capacity of the link is referred to as its bandwidth. The bandwidth is quantified in bits per second. The connection with a higher transfer rate, such as gigabit, is chosen over the connection with a smaller capacity, such as 56 kb. The protocol will assess the bandwidth capacity of each link along the route, and the route with the highest bandwidth will be deemed the optimal one.

Comparison of Routing Protocols

Routing protocols are compared based on the following characteristics:

  • Implementation and maintenance: Implementation and maintenance describe the level of knowledge necessary for a network administrator to install and maintain the network by the routing protocol adopted.
  • Speed of convergence: The speed of convergence is the rate at which the routers in a network architecture share routing information and attain a state of consistent knowledge. The more rapidly a protocol converges, the more desirable it is. When inconsistent routing tables are not updated due to poor convergence in a dynamic network, routing loops can arise.
  • Classful vs Classless: Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask and cannot support variable-length subnet mask (VLSM). Updates for classless routing protocols include the subnet mask. Classless routing techniques support VLSM and provide for improved route summarization.
  • Scalability: Scalability defines the maximum size of a network based on the deployed routing system. The routing protocol must be more scalable as the network size increases.
  • Resource usage: Resource usage consists of the requirements of a routing protocol, including memory space (RAM), CPU utilization, and link bandwidth usage. In addition to packet forwarding activities, the operation of the routing protocol necessitates more robust hardware due to its increased resource demands.

Comparisons of the routing protocols are given in the following table:

RIPv1RIPv2IGRPEIGRPOSPFIS-IS
ConvergeSlowSlowSlowFastFastFast
Scalibility/Size of NetworkSmallSmallSmallLargeLargeLarge
Use of VLSMNoYesNoYesYesYes
Resource UsageLowLowLowMediumHighHigh
Implementation & MaintenanceSimpleSimpleSimpleComplexComplexComplex

Table 2. Comparisons of the Dynamic Routing Protocols

Which Network Protocol is Used to Route IP Addresses?

Internet Protocol is used to route IP addresses. An Internet Protocol (IP) assigns the network-participating system a unique address known as an IP address. These IP addresses are used to route data packets between the source and destination systems.

The IP address is accountable for identifying and routing network systems. Each device has a unique Internet protocol address.

Is VPN a Routing Protocol?

No. VPN stands for Virtual Private Network, which enables a user to connect to a private network securely and privately over the Internet. VPN creates an encrypted connection known as a VPN tunnel, through which all Internet traffic and conversation are routed. Some VPN protocols are as follows:

Does VPN Improve Routing?

No. If you install a VPN on your router, you might anticipate speed and performance issues. Since deploying a VPN on your router imposes new network management responsibilities such as traffic encryption/decryption that is memory-intensive and CPU-intensive operations. Additionally, the router must periodically connect to a certain VPN server, which requires processing power.

Do NGFWs Support Routing Protocols?

Yes, next-generation firewall(NGFW) solutions support IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols. For instance, OPNsense powered with Zenarmor next-generation firewall plugin offers dynamic routing protocols, like RIP v1 and v2, OSPFv2 and v3, and BGPv4. In order to use one or more of the dynamic routing protocols included, OPNsense firewall administrators must install os-frr, FRRouting Protocol Suite plugin.